Expected Learning Outcomes:
1) To learn about how computer systems work and underlying principles
2) To understand the basics of digital electronics needed for computers
3) To understand the basics of instruction set architecture for reduced and complex instruction sets
4) To understand the basics of processor structure and operation
5) To understand how data is transferred between the processor and I/O devices
Computer Abstractions and Technology: Basic structure and operation of a computer,
functional units and their interaction. Representation of numbers and characters.
Logic circuits and functions:
Combinational circuits and functions: Basic logic gates and functions, truth tables;
logic circuits and functions. Minimization with Karnaugh maps. Synthesis of logic
functions with and-or-not gates, nand gates, nor gates. Fan-in and fan-out
requirements; tristate buffers. Half adder, full adder, ripple carry adder.
(Flip flops) Gated S-R and D latches, edge-triggered D latch. Shift registers and
registers. Decoders, multiplexers.
Sequential circuits and functions: State diagram and state table; finite state machines
and their synthesis.
Instruction set architectures:
Memory organization, addressing and operations; word size, big-endian and littleendian arrangements. Instructions, sequencing. Instruction sets for RISC and CISC
(examples Altera NIOS II and Freescale ColdFire). Operand addressing modes;
pointers; indexing for arrays. Machine language, assembly language, assembler
directives. Function calls, processor runtime stack, stack frame. Types of machine
instructions: arithmetic, logic, shift, etc. Instruction sets, RISC and CISC examples.
Basic Processor Unit:
Main components of a processor: registers and register files, ALU, control unit,
instruction fetch unit, interfaces to instruction and data memories. Datapath.
Instruction fetch and execute; executing arithmetic/logic, memory access and branch
instructions; hardwired and microprogrammed control for RISC and CISC.
Accessing I/O devices, data transfers between processor and I/O devices. Interrupts
and exceptions: interrupt requests and processing.
1. Carl Hamacher et al., Computer Organization and Embedded Systems, 6 ed., McGraw-Hill
1. Patterson and Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, Morgan Kaufmann, ARM
2. R P Jain, Modern Digital Electronics, Tata McGraw Hill Education Pvt. Ltd. , 4th Edition,