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AC 27/2/13

Item no. 4.49

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

Syllabus for sem V & VI

Program: B.Sc.

Course: Physics

(Credit Based Semester and Grading System with

effect from the academic year 2013–2014)

Page 1 of 18

AC 27/2/13

Item no. 4.49

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

Syllabus for sem V & VI

Program: B.Sc.

Course: Physics

(Credit Based Semester and Grading System with

effect from the academic year 2013–2014)

Page 2 of 18

T.Y.B.Sc. _Physics_ Syllabus : Credit Based Semester and Grading System

To be implemented from the Academic year 2013-2014

SEMESTER V

Theory

Course UNIT TOPICS Credits L /

Week

USPH501 I Mathematical Methods in Physics

2.5 4 II Mathematical Methods in Physics

III Thermal and Statistical Physics

IV Thermal and Statistical Physics

USPH502 I Solid State Physics

2.5 4 II Solid State Physics

III Solid State Physics

IV Solid State Physics

USPH503 I Atomic and Molecular Physics

2.5 4 II Atomic and Molecular Physics

III Atomic and Molecular Physics

IV Atomic and Molecular Physics

USPH504 I Electrodynamics

2.5 4 II Electrodynamics

III Electrodynamics

IV Electrodynamics

Practicals

USPHP05 Practicals of Course USPH501 + Course USPH502 3 8

USPH P06 Practicals of Course USPH503 + Course USPH504 3 8

Scheme of examination: Theory;

(A) Internal Examination: 40 marks

Sr.

No Particulars Marks

1 One Class Test/case study/online examination to be conducted in the

given semester 20

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2 One assignment based on the curricu lum to be assessed by the teacher

concerned 10

3 Active Participation in routine class instructional deliveries. 05

4 Overall conduct as a responsible learner, communication and leadership

qualities in organizing re lated academic activities

05

(B) External Examination : 60 marks

1. Each theory paper shall be of two and half hour duration.

Each paper shall consist of FIVE questions. All questions are compulsory and will have internal

option.

Q – I is from Unit - 1, Q – II is from Unit - 2,

Q - III is from Unit - 3,

Q - IV is from Unit - 4, Q - V will consist of questions from a ll the FOUR units with equal weightage of

marks allotted to each unit.

ii) Practicals: There will not be any internal exam ination for practical. The External examination per

practical course will be conducted as per the following scheme,

Sr. No Particulars of External Practical Examination Marks%

1 Laboratory Work 80

2 Journal 10

3 Viva 10

TOTAL 100

A candidate will be allowed to appear for the pr actical examination only if the candidate submits

a certified journal of TYBSc Physics or a certificate from the Head of the Department to the

effect that the candidate has completed the practical course of TYBSc Physics as per the

minimum requirements.

iii) Visits to industry, national research labo ratories, and scientific exhibitions should be

encouraged.

Page 4 of 18

SEMESTER V

Theory Course - USPH501: Mathematic al, Thermal and St atistical Physics

UNIT TOPICS

I 1. Differential equations :

Introduction, Ordinary differential e quations, First orde r homogeneous and non-

homogeneous equations with variable coefficients, Second-order homogeneous

equations with constant coefficients , Second order non-hom ogeneous equations

with constant coefficients.

2. Partial differential equations :

Introduction, Some important partial di fferential equations in Physics, An

illustration of the method of direct integration, Method of separation of variables.

II 1. Fourier series :

Introduction, Fourier cosine and sine series, Change of interval, Fourier Integral,

Complex form of the Fourier series, Fourier transforms :

2. Fourier transforms: Introduction, Formal development of the complex Fourier

transform, Cosine and Sine transforms, Th e transforms of derivatives(with proof),

III 1. Description of a system :

Why statistical approach, Particle-states, System-states, Microstates and Macro

states of a system, Equilibrium and Fluctuations, Irreversibility, The equi-

probability postulate, Statistical ensemble, Number of states accessible to a system,

Phase space, Reversible processes.

2. Thermal and Adiabatic Interactions :

Thermal interaction, Canonical distribution, Energy fluctuations, Entropy of a

system in a heat bath, Helmholtz free en ergy, Adiabatic interaction and enthalpy,

General interaction and the first law of thermodynamics, Infinitesimal general

interaction, Gibbs free energy, Phase transitions.

IV 1. Statistical Mechanics :

Phase space, The probability of a di stribution, The most probable distribution,

Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, Molecular speeds.

2. Quantum Statistics :

Bose-Einstein statistics, Black-body radi ation, The Rayleigh-Jeans formula, The

Planck radiation formula, Fermi-Dirac st atistics, Comparison of results, Transition

between states.

References :

UNIT - I

1. CH : 5.1, 5.2.1 (omit D), 5.2.3, 5.2.4

2. CH : 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.3, 5.3.4.

UNIT - II

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1. CH : 7.1, 7.1.1, 7.1.2, 7.1.3, 7.1.4, 7.2.

2. CH : 8.1, 8.2.1, 8.2.2, 8.2.4, 8.2.5, 8.2.6.

UNIT - III

1. LG : 1.1 to 1.11

2. LG : 2.1, 2.3 to 2.11

UNIT - V

1. AB : 15.1 to 15.5

2. AB : 16.1 to 16.7

References :

1. CH : Introduction to Mathematical Physics : Charlie Harper 2009 (EEE)

PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

2. LG. : Statistical and Thermal Physics- : S. Lokanathan and R. S. Gambhir.

an introduction (Prentice Hall of India : 2008)

3. AB. : Perspectives of Modern Physics : Arthur Beiser.

(Mc Graw Hill International ) Additional References :

1. Mathematical Physics : A K Ghatak, Chua – 1995

Macmillian India Ltd.

2. Mathematical Method of Physics : Riley, Hobson and Bence.

Cambridge (Indian edition).

3. Mathematical Physics : H. K. Dass, S. Chand & Co.

4. Mathematical Methods of Physics : Jon Mathews & R. L. Walker,

W A Benjamin inc.

5. A Treatise on heat : Saha and Srivastava. (Indian press, Allahabad) 6. Fundamentals of Statistical : F. Reif.

and Thermal Physics (Mc Graw - Hill)

SEMESTER V

Theory Course - USPH502: Solid State Physics

UNIT TOPICS

I Electrical properties of metals :

Classical free electron theory of metals, Drawbacks of classical theory, Relaxation

time, Collision time and mean free path, Qu antum theory of free electrons, Fermi-

Dirac statistics and electronic distribution in solids, Density of energy states and Fermi

energy, The Fermi distribution function, Heat capacity of the electron gas, Mean

energy of electron gas at 0 K, Electrical conductivity from quantum mechanical

considerations, Thermionic emission.

II 1. Superconductivity :

A survey, Mechanism of Superconductors, Effects of magnetic field, The

Meissner effect, The penetration dept h, Type I and Type II Superconductors.

Page 6 of 18

2. Band theory of solids, The Kronig- Penney model (Omit eq. 6.184 to 6.188),

Brillouin zones, Number of wave functions in a band, Motion of electrons in a

one-dimensional periodic potential, Distin ction between metals, insulators and

intrinsic semiconductors.

III 1. Magnetic properties of Matter :

Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism, The or igin of permanent magnetic dipoles,

Diamagnetism and Larmor pr ecession, The static paramagnetic susceptibility.

Ferromagnetism- the Weiss molecular field, Comparison of the Weiss theory with

experiment, Qualitative remarks about domains, Qualitative idea about

antiferromagnetism and ferrites.

IV 1. Conduction in Semiconductors.

Electrons and Holes in an Intrinsic Semiconductor, Conductivity, Carrier

concentrations, Donor and Acceptor impurities, Charge densities in a

Semiconductor, Fermi level in extrinsic se miconductors, Diffusion,Carrier lifetime,

The continuity equation, The Hall effect.

2. Semiconductor-diode Characteristics :

Qualitative theory of the p-n junction, The p-n junction as a diode, Band structure

of an open-circuit p-n junction, The current components in a p-n junction diode,

Quantitative theory of p-n diode currents, The Volt-Ampere characteristics, The

temperature dependence of p-n characteristics, Diode resistance.

References : UNIT – I: 1. SOP : Ch. 6 Art : I to V, XIV to XX, XXXI.

UNIT – II:

1. SOP : Ch. 8 Art : II, III, IV, VII, XII and XIII.

2. SOP : Ch. 6 Art : XXXVI to XXXXI.

UNIT - III

1. D : Art 18.1 to 18.4, 19.1 to 19.3, 19.5, 19.9, 19.12.

UNIT – IV:

1. MH : Art 4.1 to 4.10

2. MH : Art 5.1 to 5.8 References :

1. SOP : Solid State Physics : S. O. Pillai, New Age International.

2. SOP : Modern Physics and Solid State Physics : Problems and solutions

New Age International. 3. D : Solid State Physics : A. J. Dekker, Macmillan India Ltd.

4. MH : Electronic Devices and Circuits :Millman, Halkias & Satyabrata Jit. (2

nd Ed.)

Tata McGraw Hill.

Additional References : 1. Solid State Physics : S. P. Kakani and Amit Kakani.

Page 7 of 18

New Age International.

2. Semiconductor Physics and Devices : Donald Neamen (3rd Ed.) TMH.

3. Introduction to Solid State Physics : Ali Omer. Addison Wesley Longman.

SEMESTER V

Theory Course - USPH503: At omic and Molecular Physics

UNIT TOPICS

I 1. Schrödinger’s equation for Harmonic oscillato r, its solution by operator

method. Graphical representation of its energy level and wave functions.

2. Hydrogen atom: Schrödinger’s equation for Hydrogen atom, Separation of

variables, Quantum Numbers: Total quantum number, Orbital quantum number,

Magnetic quantum number. Angular mo mentum, Electron probability density

(Radial part).

II 1. Electron Spin: The Stern-Gerlach experiment, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle

Symmetric and Antisymmetric wave functions.

2. Spin orbit coupling, Hund’s Rule, Total angular momentum, Vector atom model,

L-S and j-j coupling. Origin of spectral lines, Selection rules.

III 1. Effect of Magnetic field on atoms, The normal Zeeman effect and its explanation

(Classical and Quantum), The Lande g factor, Anomalous Zeeman effect.

2. Paschen-Back effect, Paschen-Back effect of principal series doublet, Selection

rules for Paschen-Back effect.

IV 1. Molecular Spectra (Diatomic Molecules): Rotational energy levels, Rotational

spectra, Vibrational energy levels , Vibrational-Rotational spectra.

Electronic Spectra of Diatomic mo lecules: The Born-Oppenheimer approximation,

Intensity of vibrational-electronic spectra : The Franck-Condon principle.

2. Raman Effect: Quantum Theory of Raman effect, Classical theory of Raman effect,

Pure Rotational Raman spectra : Linear molecules, symmetric top molecules,

Asymmetric top molecules, Vibrationa l Raman spectra : Raman activity of

vibrations.

References:

UNIT – I. 1. M : 5.2 B : 8.7.

2. B : 9.1 to 9.9.

UNIT - II 1 B : 10.1, 10.3. 2. (i) B : 10.2, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9. (ii) B : 11.1 and 11.2. UNIT – III: 1. SA : 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17.

2. W : 10.7, 10.8, 10.9

UNIT – IV: 1. B : 14.1, 14.3, 14.5, 14.7 BM : 6.11, 6.1.3. 2. BM : 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.1.

References :

1. B : Perspectives of Modern Physics : Arthur Beiser

Page 8 of 18

McGraw Hill.

2. SA : Introduction to Atomic & Nuclear Physics : H. Semat & J. R. Albright

(5th Ed.) Chapman & Hall.

3. W : Introduction to Atomic Spectra : H. E. White. McGraw Hill.

4 BM : Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy : C. N. Banwell &

E. M. McCash (TMH).(4th Ed.)

5 M : Introduction to Quantum Mechanics : P. T. Mathews (TMH).

SEMESTER V

Theory Course - USPH504: Electrodynamics

UNIT TOPICS

I 1. Field lines, Flux and Gauss’ law, The divergence of E, Applications of

Gauss’ law, The curl of E.

Introduction to potential, Comments on potential, Poisson’s equation and

Laplace’s equation, The potential of a localized charge distribution.

2. First Uniqueness theorem (Without pr oof), The classic image problem- Infinite

conducting plane,

II 1. Dielectrics, Induced Dipoles, Alignment of polar molecules, Polarization, Bound

charges and their physical interpretation, Gauss’ law in presence of dielectrics, A

deceptive parallel, Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric constant, Energy in

dielectric systems.

2. Straight-line currents, The Divergence and Curl of B, Applications of Ampere’s

Law in the case of a long straight wire and a long solenoid, Comparison of

Magneto-statics and Electrostatics.

III 1. Dia-magnets Paramagnets Ferro magne ts, Magnetization, Bound currents and

their physical interpretation, Ampere’s law in magnetized materials, A deceptive

parallel, Magnetic susceptibility and permeability.

2. Energy in magnetic fields, Electrody namics before Maxwell, Maxwell’s

correction to Ampere’s law, Maxwell’ s equations, Magnetic charge, Maxwell’s

equations in matter, Boundary conditions.

IV 1. The continuity equation, Poynting’s theorem, Newton’s third law in

electrodynamics.

2. The wave equation for E and B, Monochromatic Plane waves, Energy and

momentum in electromagnetic waves, Propagation in linear media, Reflection and

transmission of EM waves at normal incidence.

References:

UNIT – I

1. DG : 2.2.1 to 2.2.4, 2.3.1 to 2.3.4.

2. DG : 3.1.5, 3.2.1 to 3.2.3.

UNIT - II

1. DG : 4.1.1 to 4.1.4, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, 4.4.1, 4.4.3.

2. DG : 5.3.1 to 5.3.4.

UNIT - III

1. DG : 6.1.1, 6.1.4, 6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6.4.1.

2. DG : 7.2.4, 7.3.1 to 7.3.6.

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UNIT - IV

1. DG : 8.1.1, 8.1.2., 8.2.1.

2. DG : 9.2.1 to 9.2.3, 9.3.1 to 9.3.2.

References : DG : Introduction to Electrodynamics : David J. Griffiths (3

rd Ed) Prentice Hall of India.

Additional References:

1. Introduction to Electrodynamics: A. Z. Capria and P. V. Panat.

Narosa Publishing House.

2. Engineering Electrodynamics : William Hayt Jr. & John H. Buck (TMH).

3. Electricity and Magnetism : Navina Wadhwani (PHI – 2010).

SEMESTER V

The T. Y. B. Sc. Syllabus integrates the regular pr actical work with a series of demonstration and skill

experiments. During the teaching and examination of Physics laboratory work, simple modifications of

experimental parameters ma y be attempted. Attention should be given to basic skills of experimentation

which include:

i) Understanding relevant concepts.

ii) Planning of the experiments.

iii) Layout and adjustments of the equipments.

iv) Recording of observations and plotting of graphs.

v) Calculation of results and estimation of possi ble errors in the observation of results.

i) Regular Physics Experiments : A minimum of 8 experiments from each of the course

are to be performed and reported in the journal.

ii) Skill Experiments : All the skills are compulsory and must be reported in the journal.

Skills will be tested during the examin ation through viva or practicals

The certified journal must contain a minimu m of 16 regular experiments (8 from each group), with

all Skills in semester V. A separate index and certifi cate in journal is must for each semester course.

There will be two turns of three hours each for the examination of practical courses

(Practical Course – USPHP05)

USPHP05 1. Determination of “g” by Kater’s pendulum.

2.Flat spiral spring (Y) 3. Stefan’s constant σ

4. Koenig’s method 5. R.P. of grating 6. Goniometer 7. R.I of liquid using laser 8. Rydberg’s constant 9. Edser’s A pattern 10. Diameter of lycopodium powder 11. Determination of e/m

Page 10 of 18

SEMESTER V

(Practical Course – USPHP06)

USPHP06 1.Mutual inductance by BG.

2.Hysteresis by magnetometer 3. Maxwell’s bridge 4.Band gap of energy. 5.Diode as temperature sensor.

6. Log amplifier using OPAMP

7. High pass (first order active filter)

8. Low pass (first order active filter) 9. Wien bridge oscillator 10. Hall effect 11. LM-317 as voltage regulator 12 LM 317 as current regulator

Skills :

1. Estimation of errors.

2. Soldering advanced circuit.

3. Bread board circuit using IC’s.

4. Optical Leveling of Spectrometer.

5. Laser beam profile.

6. Use of electronic balance : radius of small ball bearing.

7. Dual trace CRO : Phase shift measurement.

8. BG : C 1 /C2 by comparing θ1 / θ2.

References :

1. Advanced course in Practical Physics : D. Chattopadhya, PC. Rakshit & B. Saha

(8th Edition) Book & Allied Pvt. Ltd .

2. BSc Practical Physics : Harnam Singh. S. Chand & Co. Ltd. – 2001.

3. A Text book of Practical Physics : Samir Kumar Ghosh New Central Book Agency (4rd edition).

4. B Sc. Practical Physics : C. L. Arora (1st Edition ) – 2001 S. Chand & Co. Ltd.

5. Practical Physics : C. L. Squires – ( 3rd Edition)

Cambridge University Press.

6. University Practical Physics : D C Tayal. Himalaya Publication.

7. Advanced Practical Physics : Worsnop & Flint.

Page 11 of 18

T.Y.B.Sc. _Physics_ Syllabus: Credit Based Semester and Grading System

To be implemented from the Academic year 2013-2014

SEMESTER VI

Theory

Course UNIT TOPICS Credits L / Week

USPH601 I Classical Mechanics

2.5 4 II Classical Mechanics

III Classical Mechanics

IV Nonlinear Mechanics

USPH602 I Electronics

2.5 4 II Electronics

III Electronics

IV Electronics

USPH603 I Nuclear Physics

2.5 4

II Nuclear Physics

III Nuclear Physics

IV Nuclear Physics

USPH604 I Special Theory of Relativity

2.5 4 II Special Theory of Relativity

III Special Theory of Relativity

IV Introduction to Cosmology

Practicals

USPHP07 Practicals of Course USPH601 + Course

USPH602 3 8

USPHP08 Practicals of Course USPH603 + Course

USPH604 3 8

Page 12 of 18

SEMESTER VI

Theory Course – USPH601: Classical Mechanics

UNIT TOPICS

I 1. Motion under a central force, The central force inversely proportional to the square

of the distance, Elliptical orbits. The Kepler problem. Hyperbolic Orbits : The

Rutherford problem – Scattering cross section.

2. Moving origin of co-ordinates, Rotating co-o rdinate systems, Laws of motion on the

rotating earth, Foucault pendulum, Larmor’s theorem (with proof).

II Lagrange’s equations: D’Al embert’s principle, Generalized coordinates,

Lagrange’s equations using D’Alembert’s principle, Examples, Systems subject to

constraints, Examples of systems subject to constraints, Constants of motion and

ignorable coordinates.

III 1. Kinematics of moving fluids, Equation of motion for an ideal fluid, Conservation

laws for fluid motion, Steady flow.

2. The rotation of a Rigid body : Motion of a rigid body in space, Euler’s equations of

motion for a rigid body, Euler’s angles, Heavy symmetrical top (without nutation).

IV Non linear mechanics : Qualitative approach to chaos, The anharmonic oscillator,

Numerical solution of Duffing’s equation, Transition to chaos: Bifurcations and

strange attractors, Aspects of chaotic behavior.

References :

UNIT – I

1. KRS : Art. 3.13 to 3.16

2. KRS : Art. 7.1 to 7.5

UNIT – II

1. KRS : Art. 9.1 to 9.6 G:1.4 UNIT - III

1. KRS : Art. 8.6 to 8.9

2. KRS : Art. 11.1, 11.2, 11.4, 11.5, BO : 6.7

UNIT - IV 1. BO : Art. 11.1, 11.3 to 11.5

References :

KRS : Mechanics : Keith R. Symon. (Addision Wesely) 3

rd Ed.

BO : Classical Mechanics- : V. D. Barger and M. G. Olsson. a Modern perspective (Mc Graw Hill International 1995 Ed.)

G

: Classical Mechanics : Herbert Goldstein, (Narosa 2nd Ed.)

Additional References :

1. Classical Mechanics : Herbert Goldstein (Narosa 2nd Ed.)

2. An Introduction to Mechanics : Daniel Kleppner & Robert Kolenkow

Tata Mc Graw Hill (Indian Ed. 2007) 3. Chaotic Dynamics- an introduction. : Baker and Gollup.

Page 13 of 18

SEMESTER VI

Theory Course – USPH602: Electronics

UNIT TOPICS

I 1. Field effect transistors: JFET: Basic ideas, Drain curve, The transconductance

curve, Biasing in the ohmic region and th e active region, Transconductance, JFET

common source amplifier, JFET analog sw itch multiplexer, voltage controlled

resistor, Current sourcing.

2. MOSFET : Depletion and enhancem ent mode, MOSFET operation and

characteristics, digital switching.

3. Thyristors : SCR – Working, Equivalent circuit, important terms, I-V

Characteristics, SCR as a switch, Half wave rectifier and Full

wave rectifier.

TRIAC: Construction, Operati on, I-V Characteristics, Applications.

DIAC: Construction, Operati on, Characteristics and applications.

4. Optoelectronic Devices: Photo-diode, Phototransistor, Optocoupler.

II 1. Regulated DC power supply: Supply characteristics, series voltage regulator,

short circuit protection (current limit and fold back) Monolithic linear IC voltage

regulators. (LM 78XX, LM 79XX, LM 317).

2. Differential Amplifier using transistor: The Differential Amplifier, DC and AC

analysis of a differential amplifier, Input characteristic-effect of input bias, Offset

current and input offset voltage on output, common mode gain, CMRR.

3. Transistor Multivibrators: Astable, M onostable and Bistable Multivibrators,

Schmitt trigger.

III 1. Op Amp Applications: Log amplifier, Instrumentation amplifiers, Voltage-

controlled current sources (grounded load ), First order Active filters, Astable

using OP AMP, square wave and tria ngular wave generator using OP AMP,

Wein-bridge oscillator using OP AMP.

2. 555 Timer: Block diagram, Monostabl e and Astable operation (with VCO),

Triggered linear ramp generator.

IV 1. Logic families: Standard TTL NAND, TTL NOR, Open collector gates, Three

state TTL devices, MOS inverters, CMOS NAND and NOR gates, CMOS

characteristics.

2. Applications of JK flip flop: Types of registers, 4-bit shift register (serial in-serial

out), Asynchronous counters, 4-bit up-down counter, MOD-3, MOD-5, Decade

counter, Shift counter.

3. Electronic communication techniques: Ra dio broadcasting, Transmission and

reception, Modulation, Amplitude modulation, Modulation factor, Analysis of

amplitude modulated wave, Side band frequencies in AM wave, Transistor

amplitude modulator, Power in AM wave, Limitations of AM, Frequency

modulation. (qualitative)

Page 14 of 18

References :

Unit -I:

1. MB : Art. 13.1 to 13.9, 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.6. 2. VKM : Art. 20.1 to 20.10, 21.1 to 21.6, 21.8, 21.9, 21.10. 3. VKM : Art 7.7 to 7.11. MB : 7.10.

UNIT – II:

1. MB : Art 17.1 to 17.5. 2. KVR : Art. 14.5.2.1, 14.5.2.5 , 14.5.2.6, 14.5.4.1.

3. MB : Art. 20.5, 20.8, 21.4, 22.7, 22.8, 23.2. MH : 16.14. UNIT – III:

1. MB : Art. 23.7 to 23.9.

2. ML : Art. 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7, 7.2 to 7.4. UNIT – IV: 1 ML : Art 10.1, 10.2, 11.1, 11.3 to 11.5, 11.7. 2. MB : Art 24.1, 24.3, 24.4. 3. VKM : Art. 16.1 to 16.11.

References : 1. MB : Electronic Principles : A. P. Malvino and D.J. Bates (7

th Ed.) – (TMH).

2. VKM : Principles of Electronics : V. K. Mehta and Rohit Mehta.

S. Chand Publications. (11th Ed.).

3. KVR : Functional Electronics : K .V. Ramanan (TMH).

4. ML : Digital Principles and A pplications : Malvino and Leach (4th Ed)

(TMH). 5. MH : Integrated Electronics : Millman and Halkias Mc Graw Hill International.

Additional References :

1. Electronic Devices and Circuits : S. Salivahanan, N. Suresh Kumar

and A. Vallavaraj. (2nd Ed.)

(Tata McGraw Hill) 2. Pulse, Digital & Switching Waveforms : Millman & Taub. (TMH)

SEMESTER VI

Theory Course – USPH603: Nuclear Physics

UNIT TOPICS

I 1. Types of Nuclear Reactions, Balance of mass and energy in Nuclear Reaction,

the Q-equation and Solution of Q-equation.

2. Alpha decay: Range of alpha particles, Disintegration energy, Alpha decay

paradox: Barrier penetration (Gamow’s th eory of alpha decay and Geiger-Nuttal

law), Velocity and energy, Absorption of alpha particles: Range, Ionization and

stopping power, Nuclear energy levels.

Page 15 of 18

II 1. Beta decay: Introduction, Continuous be ta ray spectrum-Difficulties encountered

to understand it, Pauli’s neutrino hypothesi s, Detection of neutrino, Velocity and

energy of beta particles, Energy levels and decay schemes, Energetics of beta

decay.

2. Gamma decay: Introduction, Internal conve rsion, Nuclear isomerism, Mossbauer

effect.

III 1. Nuclear radiation detectors: Proportiona l counter, Scintillation counter, Cloud and

Bubble chamber, Ionization chamber, Proportional and GM counter.

2. Liquid drop model, Weizsacher’s semi-empirical mass formula, Mass parabolas -

Prediction of stability against beta decay for members of an isobaric family,

Stability limits against spontaneous fission.

IV 1. Nuclear energy: Introduction, Asymmetric fission - Mass yield, Emission of

delayed neutrons, Nuclear release in fission, Nature of fission fragments, Energy

released in the fission of U235, Fission of lighter nuclei, Fission chain reaction,

Neutron cycle in a thermal nuclear reactor (Four Factor Formula), Nuclear reactors,

Natural fusion, Possibility of controlled fusion.

2. Elementary particles: Introduction, Classifica tion of elementary particles, Electrons

and positrons, Protons and anti- protons, Neutrons and anti- neutrons, Neutrinos and

anti-neutrinos, Photons, Mesons.

References:

UNIT – I:

1. P : 3.1 to 3.5. K : 8.5, 9.5

2. P : 4. II. 1, 4. II. 2, 4. II. 3, 1.II.3 K : 13. 1, 13.2, 13.5.

UNIT – II:

1 P : 4.I.2, 4.I.3, 4. III. 1, 4. III. 2, 4. III. 3, 4. III. 5 K : 14.1, 14.7 G : 5.5. 2. P : 4. IV. 1, 4. IV. 3, 4. IV. 4, 9.4. UNIT – III: 1. P : 1. I. 3 K : 2.8. 2. P : 5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5.

UNIT – IV:

1 P : 6.1, 6.3 to 6.9, 9.6, 9.7. 2. T : 16.1, 16.2, 16.5 to 16.9. References:

1. AB : Concepts of Modern Physics : Arthur Beiser (6

th Ed.) (TMH).

2. P : Nuclear Physics : S.B. Patel (Wiley Eastern Ltd.). 3. K : Nuclear Physics : Irving Kaplan (2

nd Ed.) (Addison Wesley).

4. G : Nuclear Physics : S. N. Ghoshal (S. Chand & Co.) 5. T : Nuclear Physics : D. C. Tayal (Himalayan Publishing House)

Additional References.

1. Modern Physics : Kenneth Krane (2

nd Ed.)

John Wiley & Sons. 2. Atomic & Nuclear Physics : N Subrahmanyam, Brij Lal.

(Revised by Jivan Seshan.) S. Chand.

3. Atomic & Nuclear Physics : A B Gupta & Dipak Ghosh Books & Allied (P) Ltd.

Page 16 of 18

SEMESTER VI

Theory Course – USPH604: Special Theory of Relativity and Introduction to Cosmology

UNIT TOPICS

I Relativistic Kinematics: The postulates of the special theory of relativity,

Simultaneity, Derivation of Lorentz transf ormation equations, Some consequences

of the Lorentz transformation equations : length contraction, time dilation and

meson experiment, The observer in relativity, The relativistic addition of velocities

and acceleration transformation equations , Aberration and Doppler effect in

relativity, The common sense of special relativity.

II Relativistic Dynamics: Mechanic s and Relativity, The need to redefine

momentum, Relativistic momentum, Alterna tive views of mass in relativity, The

relativistic force law and the dynamics of a single particle, The equivalence of

mass and energy, The transformation properties of momentum, energy and mass.

III Relativity and Electromagnetism: In troduction, The interdependence of Electric

and Magnetic fields, The Transformation for E and B, The field of a uniformly

moving point charge, Force and fields near a current-carrying wire, Force between

moving charges, The invariance of Maxwell’s equations.

IV 1. The Geometric Representation of Space-Time: Space-Time Diagrams,

Simultaneity, Length contraction and Time dilation, The time order and space

separation of events, The twin paradox, Th e principle of equivalence and general

relativity, Gravitational red shift.

2. Introduction to Cosmology: The large scale structure of the Universe: Types of

galaxies, radio sources, Quasars, Doppler shift and expansion of the Universe,

Hubble’s law, Radiation background.

3. Astronomy in different bands of radiation-Optical, Radio and x-ray astronomy.

References :

UNIT – I:

1. RR : Chapter – II

UNIT – II:

2. RR : Chapter – III.

UNIT – III :

1. RR : Chapter – IV.

UNIT – IV:

Relevant sections from the following: RR : Supplementary topics A, B and C. ARC:Art 1.4

1. JVNI : Chapter – 1, JVNE : Chapter – 1.

1. JVNI : Chapter – 3, (Omit 3.3, 3.4) JVNE : Chapter – 2

2. ARC : Astrophysics for physicists by Arnab Rai Choudhari., Cambridge University Press.

References :

1. RR : Introduction to Specia l Relativity : Robert Resnick

(Wiley Student Edition)

Page 17 of 18

Reprint 2007, New Delhi.

2. JVNI : Introduction to Cosmology : J. V. Narlikar. 3rd Ed. 2002

(Cambridge University Press).

3. JVNE : Elements of Cosmology : J. V. Narlikar, 1996

(University Press). Additional References:

1. Special theory of Relativity : A. P. French. 2. General Relativity & Cosmology : S. K. Srivastava (Prentice Hall of India).

SEMESTER VI

The T. Y. B. Sc. Syllabus integrates the regular pr actical work with a series of demonstration and skill

experiments. During the teaching and examination of Physics laboratory work, simple modifications of

experimental parameters ma y be attempted. Attention should be given to basic skills of experimentation

which include:

1) Understanding relevant concepts.

2) Planning of the experiments.

3) Layout and adjustments of the equipments.

4) Recording of observations and plotting of graphs.

5) Calculation of results and estimation of possi ble errors in the observation of results.

i) Regular Physics Experiments: A minimum of 8 experiments from each of the practical

course are to be performed and reported in the journal.

ii) Demo Experiments : The demonstration experiments are to be performed by the teacher in the

laboratory and students should be enc ouraged to participate and take

observation wherever possible.

Demonstration experiments are designed to bring about interest and

excitement in Physics. Students ar e required to enter details of these

‘demo’ experiments in their journal.

The certified journal must contain a mini mum of 16 regular experiments (8 from each practical

course), with minimum 6 demonstration experiments in semester VI. A separate index and certificate in

journal is must for each semester course.

There will be two turns of three hours each for the examination of practical courses

(Practical Course – USPHP07)

USPHP07 1. Lee’s method for thermal conductivity

2. Quincke’s method for surface tension of Mercury

3. Flat spiral spring ( η)

4. R.P. of prism

5. Lloyd’s mirror

6. Double refraction

7. FET characteristics

8. UJT characteristics

9. SCR characteristics

10. Photodiode and phototrans istor characteristics

Page 18 of 18

11. Y by flexural method

12. Determination of wavelength of a laser using diffraction grating.

(Practical Course – USPHP08)

USPHP08 1.M/C using B.G.

2.Capacitance by using parallel bridge. 3.Transistorized Astable multivibrator 4. Transistorized Bistable multivibrator 5. Transistorized Monostable multivibrator. 6.Schmitt trigger using OPAMP. 7.555 Timer Astabe multivibrator 8. 555 Timer as Monostable multivibrator 9. 555 timer as ramp generator. 10. Counters mod 2,5 10. 11.Shift register. 12 OPAMP as monostable/as table using breadboard

Demonstration Experiments :

1. Open CRO, Power Supply, and Signal Generator: Discuss block diagram.

2. Data sheet reading for diodes, Transistor, Op amp and Optoelectronic devices.

3. Circuit designing – single stage amplifier, Transist or Multivibrator etc. and testing on breadboard.

4. Equation solver.

5. Amplitude Modulation.

6. Frequency Modulation.

7. Millikan’s oil drop experiment.

8. Zeeman Effect.

9. Michelson’s interferometer.

10. Iodine absorption spectra.

11. Standing waves in liquid using Ultrasonic waves.

12. PC simulation of 8085.

13. Use of PC / μP to control real world parameters.

14. Seven segment display.

15. GM counter

References :

1. Advanced course in Practical Physics : D. Chattopadhya, PC. Rakshit & B. Saha

(8th Edition)Book & Allied Pvt. Ltd.

2. BSc Practical Physics : Harnam Singh

S. Chand & Co. Ltd. – 2001. 3. A Text book of Practical Physics : Samir Kumar Ghosh New Central Book Agency (4

rd edition).

4. B Sc. Practical Physics : C. L. Arora (1st Edition ) – 2001

S. Chand & Co. Ltd.

5. Practical Physics : C. L. Squires – ( 3rd Edition)

Cambridge University Press. 6. University Practical Physics : D C Tayal. Himalaya Publication. 7. Advanced Practical Physics : Worsnop & Flint.

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