## TYBSc Physics FINAL Syllabus 1 Syllabus Mumbai University by munotes

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UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

SYLLABUS FOR SEM - V & VI

Program: B.Sc.

Course: Physics

(Credit Based Semester and Grading System

w. e. f. the academic year 2018 –2019)

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T.Y.B.Sc. Physics Syllabus: Credit Based Semester and Grading

System to be impl emented from the Academic year 201 8-2019.

SEMESTER V

Theory

Course UNIT TOPICS

Credits

Lectures

per

Week

USPH501 I Mathematical Methods in Physics

2.5

4 II Mathematical Methods in Physics

III Thermal and Statistical Physics

IV Therm al and Statistical Physics

USPH502

I Solid State Physics

2.5

4 II Solid State Physics

III Solid State Physics

IV Solid State Physics

USPH503 I Atomic Physics

2.5

4 II Atomic Physics

III Molecular Physics

IV Molecula r Physics

USPH504 I Electrodynamics

2.5

4 II Electrodynamics

III Electrodynamics

IV Electrodynamics

Practicals

USPHP05 Practicals of Course USPH501 + Course USPH502

2.5 6

USPHP06 Practicals of Course USPH503 + Course USPH504

2.5 6

Project

USPHPR1 USPH501 + USPH502 + USPH503 + USPH504 1 4

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SEMESTER V I

Theory

Course UNIT TOPICS

Credits

Lectures

per

Week

USPH6 01 I Classical Mechanics

2.5

4 II Classical Mechanics

III Classical Mechanics

IV Classical Mechani cs

USPH6 02

I Electronics

2.5

4 II Electronics

III Electronics

IV Electronics

USPH6 03 I Nuclear Physics

2.5

4 II Nuclear Physics

III Nuclear Physics

IV Nuclear Physics

USPH6 04 I Special Theory of Relativity

2.5

4 II Special Theory of Relativity

III Special Theory of Relativity

IV Special Theory of Relativity

Practicals

USPH6 05 Practicals of Course USPH6 01 + Course USPH 602

2.5 6

USPH6 06 Practicals of Course USPH 603 + Course USPH 604

2.5 6

Project

USPHPR2 USPH601 + USPH6 02 + USPH6 03 + USPH 604 1 4

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SCHEME OF THEORY, PRACTICALS AND PROJECT EXAMINATION

(SEM - V & VI)

I. Theory: External Examination: 100 marks

Each theory paper shall be of THREE hours duration .

Each paper shall consist of FIVE questions. All questions are compulsory

and will have internal options. Choice in papers has to be 1.5 times.

Q – I : From Unit – I

Q – II : From Unit – II

Q – III : From Unit - III

Q – IV : From Unit - IV

Q – V : Will consist of ques tions from all the FOUR Units with equal

weightage of marks allotted to each Unit.

II. Practicals and Project: The External Practical Examination will be

conducted as per the following scheme.

Sr.

No.

Particulars of External Practical and Project Examination Total

Marks

1 Laboratory Work Experiment -1= 60 M Experiment -2 = 60 M 120

2 Journal 10 10 20

3 Viva 10 10 20

Sub Total = 160

III. Project Internal Examiner

(20 M) External Examin er

(20 M)

40

Grand Total 200

Passing Criteria :

1. A student should be considered as passed in the practical examination

provided he/she fulfills the following passing criteria

a. Minimum of 20 marks in each practical component - i.e. USPHP07

and USPHP08.

b. Minimum of 10 marks in Project Component

c. And cumulatively scoring 80 marks (i.e. 40 % of 200 marks)

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Component Maximum

Marks Minimum

Passing

Marks

USPHP07 80 20

USPHP08 80 20

Project 2 40 10

Total 200 80

Scheme of Examination :

1. The University (external ) examination for Theory and Practical shall be

conducted at the end of each Semester and the evaluation of Project

work at the end of the each Semester.

2. The candidate should appear for THREE Practical sessions of three

hours each as part of his/her Practi cal course examination.

3. The candidates shall appear for external examination of 2 practical

courses each carrying 80 marks and presenta tion of project work

carrying 20 marks at the end of each semester.

4. The candidates shall also appear for internal present ation of project work

carrying 20 marks at the end of each semester.

5. The candidate shall prepare and submit for practical examination a

certified Journal bas ed on the practical course with 6 experiments from

each group.

6. The certified journal must contain a minimum of 12 regular experiments

(6 from each group), with minimum 5 demonstration experiments in

semester VI. A separate index and certificate in journal is must for each

semester course.

7. At the time of practical examination, the candidate must also submit the

certified Project Report prepared as per the guidelines given in the

Syllabus.

A candidate will be allowed to appear for the practical examination only if the

candidate submits a certified journal of TYBSc Physics or a certificate from the

Head of the Department to the effect that the candidate has completed the

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practical course of TYBSc Physics as per the mi nimum requirements and a

project completion report duly certified by the project in-charge and Head of

the Department.

III. Visits: Visits to industry, national research laboratories, and scientific

exhibitions should be encouraged.

SEMESTER V

Theory Course - USPH501: Mathematical, Thermal and

Statistical Physics

Learning outcomes: From this course, the student s are expected to learn

some mathematical techniques required to understand the physical

phenomena at the undergraduate level and get exposure to important ideas of

statistical mechanics.

The students are expected to be able to solve simple problems in pro bability,

understand the concept of independent events and work with standard

continuous distributions. The students will have idea of the functions of

complex variables; solve nonhomogeneous differential equations and partial

differential equations using simple methods. The units on statistical mechanics

would introduce the students to the concept of microstates, Boltzmann

distribution and statistical origins of entropy. It is also expected that the

student will understand the difference between different statistics, classical as

well as quantum.

Unit - I Probability (15 lect.)

Review of basic concepts, introduction, sample space, events, independent

events, conditional probability, probability theorems, methods of counting

(derivation of formulae not ex pected), random variables, continuous

distributions (omit joint distributions), binomial distribution, the normal

distribution, the Poisson distribution.

Ref: MB – 15.1-15.9

Expected to cover solved problems from each section and solve at least the

followi ng problems:

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section 2: 1-5, 11 -15, section 3: 1, 3, 4, 5, section 4: 1, 3, 5,13, 21, section

5: 1, 10, 13, section 6: 1 to 9, section 8: 1 and 3, section 9: 2, 3, 4, 9.

Unit -II Complex functions and differential equations (15 lect.)

1. Functions of complex variables: The exponential and trigonometric

functions, hyperbolic functions, logarithms, complex roots and powers, inverse

trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, some applications.

Ref.: MB: 2.11 to 2.16

Expected to cover all solved problems. In addition, solve the following

problems:

section 2: 16 – 2, 3, 8, 9, 10.

2. Second -order nonhomogeneous equations with constant coefficients, partial

differential equations, some important partial differential equations in physics,

method of separation of variables.

Ref : CH :5.2.4, 5.3.1 to 5.3.4

Expected to cover all solved problems. In addition, solve the following

problems:

5.17 a to e , 5.23, 5.26, 5.29 to 5.35.

Unit -III Statistical Thermodynamics (15 lect.)

Microstates and configurations, derivation of Boltzmann distribution,

dominance of Boltzmann distribution, physical meaning of the Boltzmann

distribution law, definition of , the canonical ensemble, relating Q to q for an

ideal gas, translatio nal partition function, equipartition theorem, energy,

entropy

ER: 13.1 to 13.5, 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.8, 15.1, 15.4

Unit -IV Classical and Quantum Statistics (15 lect.)

The probability of a distribution, The most probable distribution, Maxwell -

Boltzmann statistics, Molecular speeds.

Bose-Einstein statistics, Black -body radiation, The Rayleigh -Jeans formula,

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The

Planck radiation formula, Fermi -Dirac statistics, Comparison of results.

AB : 15.2 to 15.5, 16.1 to 16.6

References:

1. MB: Mathematical Methods in the Physical sciences : Mary L. Boas Wiley

India, 3rd ed.

2. ER: Thermodynamics, Statisti cal Thermodynamics and Kinetics : T. Engel

and P. Reid (Pearson).

3. AB: Perspectives of Modern Physics : Arthur Be iser, (Mc Graw Hill

International).

4. CH: Introduction to Mathematical Methods: Charlie Harper (PHI

Learning).

Additional References:

1. Mathematical Physics: A K Ghatak, Chua – 1995 Macmillian India Ltd.

2. Mathematical Method of Physics: Riley, Hobs on and Bence, Cambridge

(Indian edition).

3. Mathematical Physics: H. K. Das, S. Chand & Co.

4. Mathematical Methods of Physics: Jon Mathews & R. L. Walker, W A

Benjamin inc.

5. A Treatise on heat: Saha and Srivastava (Indian press, Allahabad)

6. Statistical Physics: F. Reif (Berkeley Physics Course, McGraw Hill)

7. Introductory Statistical Mechanics: R. Bowley and M. Sanchez (Oxford

Science Publications).

8. An Introduction to Thermal Physics: D. V. Schroeder (Pearson).

9. PROBABILITY: Schaum’s Out lines Series by S. Lipschutz and M. L.

Lipson (Mc Graw Hill International).

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Theory Course - USPH502: Solid State Physics

Learning Outcome s: On successful completion of this course students will be

able to:

1. Understand the basics of crystallography, E lectrical properties of metals,

Band Theory of solids, demarcation among the types of materials,

Semiconductor Physics and Superconductivity.

2. Understand the basic concepts of Fermi probability distribution function,

Density of states, conduction in semicon ductors and BCS theory of

superconductivity.

3. Demonstrate quantitative problem solving skills in all the topics covered.

Unit - I Crystal Physics (15 lect.)

The crystalline state, Basic definitions of crystal lattice, basis vectors, unit cell,

primitive a nd non -primitive cells, The fourteen Bravais lattices and the seven

crystal systems, elements of symmetry, nomenclature of crystal directions and

crystal planes, Miller Indices, spacing between the planes of the same Miller

indices, examples of simple crys tal structures, The reciprocal lattice and X -ray

diffraction.

Ref: Elementary Solid State Physics -Principles and Applications: M. Ali Omar,

Pearson Education, 2012 : (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 2.6)

Unit -II Electrical properties of metals (15 lec t.)

1. Classical free electron theory of metals, Drawbacks of classical theory,

Relaxation time, Collision time and mean free path

2. Quantum theory of free electrons, Fermi Dirac statistics and electronic

distribution in solids, Density of energy stat es and Fermi energy, The Fermi

distribution function, Heat capacity of the Electron gas, Mean energy of

electron gas at 0 K, Electrical conductivity from quantum mechanical

considerations, Failure of Sommerfeld’s free electron Theory

3. Thermionic Emission

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Ref.: Solid State Physics: S. O. Pillai, New Age International. 6th Ed.

Chapter 6: II, III, IV, V, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XX, XXXV, XXXI.

Unit -III Band Theory of Solids and Conduction in

Semiconductors (15 lect.)

1. Band theory of solids, The Kron ig- Penney model (Omit eq. 6.184 to 6.188),

Brillouin zones, Number of wave functions in a band, Motion of electrons in

a one -dimensional periodic potential, Distinction between metals, insulators

and intrinsic semiconductors.

Ref.: Solid State Physics : S. O. Pillai, New Age International, 6th Ed.

Chapter 6: XXXVI, XXXVII, XXXVIII, XXXIX, XXXX, XXXXI

2. Electrons and Holes in an Intrinsic Semiconductor, Conductivity of a

Semiconductor, Carrier concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor, Donor

and Accept or impurities, Charge densities in a semiconductor, Fermi level in

extrinsic semiconductors, Diffusion, Carrier lifetime, The continuity

equation, Hall Effect .

Ref.: Ele ctronic Devices and Circuits : Millman, Halkias & Satyabrata Jit.

(3rd Ed.) Tat a McGraw Hill.: 4.1 to 4.10.

Unit -IV Diode Theory and superconductivity (15 lect.)

1. Semico nductor -diode Characteristics: Qualitative theory of the p -n junction,

The p -n junction as a diode, Band structure of an open -circuit p -n junction,

The current com ponents in a p -n junction diode, Quantitative theory of p -n

diode currents, The Volt -Ampere characteristics, The temperature

dependence of p -n characteristics, Diode resistance.

Ref.: Electronic Devices and Circuits: Millman, Halkias & Satyabrata Jit.

(3rd Ed.) Tata McGraw Hill.: 5.1 to 5.8

2. Superconductivity: Experimental Survey, Occurrence of Superconductivity,

destruction of superconductivity by magnetic field, The Meissner effect,

London equation, BCS theory of superconductivity, Type I and Type II

Superconductors, Vortex state.

Ref.: Introduction to Solid State Physics -Charles Kittel, 7th Ed. John Wiley &

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Sons: Topics from Chapter 12 .

Main References:

1. Elementary Solid State Physics -Principles and Applications: M.Ali Omar,

Pearson Educ ation, 2012.

2. Solid State Physics : S. O. Pillai, New Age International , 6th Ed.

3. Electronic Devices and Circuits: Millman, Halkias & Satyabrata Jit.

(3rd Ed.) Tata McGraw Hill .

4. Introduction to Solid State Physics - Charles Kittel, 7th Ed. John Wiley &

Sons.

5. Modern Physics and Solid State Physics: Problems and solutions

New Age International.

Additional References:

1. Solid State Physics: A. J. Dekker, Pre ntice Hall.

2. Electronic Properties of Materials: Rolf Hummel, 3rd Ed. Springer.

3. Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology, 2nd Ed. John Wiley &

Sons.

4. Solid State Physics: Ashcroft & Mermin, Harcourt College Publisher.

Theory Course - USPH 503: Atomic and Molecular Physics

Learning Outcome : Upon successful completion of this course, the student

will understand

the application of quantum mechanics in atomic physics

the importance of electron spin, symmetric and antisymmetric wave

functions and vector atom model

Effect of magnetic field on atoms and its application

Learn Molecular physics and its applications.

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This course will be useful to get an insight into spectroscopy.

Unit - I (15 lect.)

1. Hydrogen atom: Schrödinger’s equation for H ydrogen atom, Separation of

variables, Quantum Numbers: Total quantum number, Orbital quantum

number, Magnetic quantum number. Angular momentum, Electron probability

density (Radial part).

2. El ectron s pin: The Stern -Gerlach experiment, Pauli’s Exclusion P rinciple

Symmetric and Anti -symmetric wave functions.

Ref – Unit – I - B: 9.1 to 9.9 , B: 10.1, 10.3. 2

Unit -II (15 lect.)

1. Spin orbit coupling, Total angular momentum, Vector atom model, L -S and

j-j coupling. Origin of spectral lines, Selection rules.

2. Effect of Magnetic field on atoms, the normal Zeeman effect and its

explanation (Classical and Quantum), The Lande g - factor, Anomalous

Zeeman effect.

Ref – Unit – II - B: 10.2, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9. B : 11.1 and 11.2

Unit -III (15 lect.)

1. Molecula r spectra (Diatomic Molecules): Rotational energy levels, Rotational

spectra, Vibrational energy levels, Vibrational -Rotational spectra. Electronic

Spectra of Diatomic molecules: The Born -Oppenheimer approximation,

Intensity of vibrational -electronic spect ra: The Franck -Condon principle.

2. Infrared spectrometer & M icrowave spectrometer

. Ref – Unit – III - B: 14.1, 14.3, 14.5, 14.7

Unit -IV (15 lect.)

1. Raman e ffect: Quantum Theory of Raman effect, Pure Rotational Raman

spectra: Linear molecules, symmetric top molecules, Asymmetric top

molecules, Vibrational Raman spectra: Raman activity of vibrations,

Experimental set up of Raman Effect.

2. Electron spin resonance: Introduction, Principle of ESR, ESR spectrometer

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3. Nuclear magnetic r esonance: Introduction, prin ciple and NMR

instrumentation.

Ref – Unit – IV - 1. BM: 6.11, 6.1.3. 2.

BM: 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.1. GA: 8.6.1

2. GA: 11.1,11.2and 11.3

3. GA : 10.1,10.2,10.3

References:

1. B: Perspectives of Modern Physics : Arthur Beiser Page 8 of 18 McGraw

Hill.

2. BM: Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy : C. N. Banwell & E. M.

McCash (TMH).(4th Ed.)

3. GA: Molecular structure and spectroscopy : G Aruldhas (2nd Ed) PHI

learning Pvt Ltd.

4. Atomic Physics (Mo dern Physics): S.N.Ghoshal. S.Chand Publication

(for problems on atomic Physics).

Theory Course - USPH504: Electrodynamics

Learning outcome s:

On successful completion of this course students will be able to:

1) Underst and the laws of electrodynamics and be able to perform

calculations using them.

2) Understand Maxwell’s electrodynamics and its relation to relativity

3) Understand how optical laws can be derived from electromagnetic

principles.

4) Develop quantitative pr oblem solving skills.

Unit - I Electrostatics (15 lect.)

1. Review of Coulomb & Gauss law, The divergence of E, Applications of Gauss’

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law, The curl of E. Introduction to potential, Comments on potential, The

potential of a localized charge distribution. Poisson’s equation and Laplace’s

equation. Solution and properties of 1D Laplace equation. Properties of 2D and

3D Laplace equation (without proof).

2. Boundary conditions and Uniqueness theorems, Conductors and Second

Uniqueness theorem, The classic ima ge problem - point charge and grounded

infinite conducting plane and conducting sphere.

DG: 2.1.1 to 2.1.3, 2.2.2 to 2.2.4, 2.3.1 to 2.3.4

DG: 3.1.1 to 3.1.4, 3.1.5, 3.1.6, 3.2.1 to 3.2.4

Unit -II Electrostatics in Matter and Magnetostatics (15 lect.)

1. Dielectrics, Induced Dipoles, Alignment of polar molecules, Polarization,

Bound charges and their physical interpretation, Gauss’ law in presence of

dielectrics, A deceptive parallel, Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric constant

and relation between them, Energy in dielectric systems.

2. Review of Biot -Savart’s law and Ampere’s law, Straight -line currents, The

Divergence and Curl of B, Applications of Ampere’s Law in the case of a long

straight wire and a long solenoid, Comparison of Magnetostatics a nd

Electrostatics, Magnetic Vector Potential.

DG: 4.1.1 to 4.1.4, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, 4.4.1, 4.4.3

DG: 5.2.1, 5.3.1 to 5.3.4, 5.4.1

Unit -III Magnetostatics in Matter and Electrodynamics (15 lect.)

1. Magnetization, Bound currents and their phys ical interpretation, Ampere’s

law in magnetized materials, A deceptive parallel, Magnetic susceptibility and

permeability.

2. Energy in magnetic fields, Electrodynamics before Maxwell, Maxwell’s

correction to Ampere’s law, Maxwell’s equations, Magnetic cha rge, Maxwell’s

equations in matter, Boundary conditions.

DG: 6.1.1, 6.1.4, 6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.2.3, 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6.4.1

DG: 7.2.4, 7.3.1 to 7.3.6

Unit -IV Electromagnetic Waves (15 lect.)

1. The continuity equation, Poynting’s theorem

2. The wave equation for E and B, Monochromatic Plane waves, Energy and

momentum in electromagnetic waves, Propagation in linear media, Reflection and

transmission of EM waves at normal incidence, Reflection and transmission of EM

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waves at oblique incidence.

DG : 8.1.1, 8.1.2

DG : 9.2.1 to 9.2.3, 9.3.1 to 9.3.3

References

1. DG: Introduction to Electrodynamics, David J. Griffiths (3rd Ed) Prentice

Hall of India.

Additional References

1. Introduction to Electrodynamics: A. Z. Capria and P. V. Panat, Narosa

Publishing H ouse.

2. Engineering Electrodynamics: William Hayt Jr. & John H. Buck (TMH).

3. Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory: Reitz, Milford and Christy.

4. Solutions to Introduction to Electrodynamics: David J. Griffiths (3rd Ed)

Prentice Hall of India.

PRACTICALS - SEMESTER V

The T. Y. B. Sc. Syllabus integrates the regular practical work with a series of

skill experiments and the project. There will be separate passing head for

project work. During the teaching and examination of Physics laboratory wor k,

simple modifications of experimental parameters may be attempted. Attention

should be given to basic skills of experimentation which include:

i) Understanding relevant concepts.

ii) Planning of the experiments

iii) Layout and adjustments of the equipments

iv) Understanding designing of the experiments

v) Attempts to make the experiments open ended

vi) Recording of obser vations and plotting of graphs

vii) Calculation of results and estimation of possible errors in the observation

of results

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i) Regular Physics Experiments: A minimum of 06 experiments from each of

the course are to be performed and reported in the journal.

ii) Skill Experiments: All the skill experiments are compulsory and must be

reported in the journal. Skills will be te sted during the examination through

viva or practical.

The certified journal must contain a minimum of 12 regular experiments

(06 from each group), with ALL Skill experiments in semester V. A separate

index and certificate in journal is must for e ach semester course.

iii) Project Includes:

a) Review articles/ PC Simulation on any con cept in Physics/ Comparative

& differentiative study/Improvement in the existing experiment (Design

and fabrication concept) /Extension of any regular experiment/At tempt to

make experiment open -ended/Thorough survey of existing active

components (devices, ICs, methods, means, technologies, generations,

applications etc. / any innovative projects having the concept of physics .

b) Two students (maximum) per project.

c) For evaluation of project, the following points shall be considered …

Working model (Experimental or Concept based simulation)

Understanding of the project

Data collection

Data Analysis

Innovation/D ifficulty

Report

There will be THREE turns of 3Hrs each for the examination of practical

courses.

SEMESTER V

PRACTICAL COURSE: USPHP05

Sr. No. Name of the Experiment

1 Determination of ‘g’ by Kater’s pendulum

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2 Surface tension of soap solution

3 Elastic constants of a rubber tube

4 Determinati on of dielectric constant

5 Logarithmic decrement

6 Searle’s Goniometer

7 Determination of Rydberg’s constant

8 Edser’s ‘A’ pattern

9 Determination of wavelength by Step slit

10 Determination of e/m by Thomson’s method

11 R. I. by total internal reflection

12 Velocity of sound in air using CRO

PRACTICAL COURSE: USPHP06

Sr. No. Name of the Experiment

1 Mutual inductance by BG.

2 Capacitance by parallel bridge

3 Hysteresis loop by CRO

4 L/C by Maxwell’s bridge

5 Band gap energy of Ge dio de

6 Design and study of transistorized astable multivibrator (BB)

7 Design and study of Wien bridge oscillator

8 Design and study of first order active low pass filter circuit (BB)

9 Design and study of first order active high pass filter circuit (BB )

10 Application of IC 555 timer as a ramp generator (BB)

11 LM 317 as constant current source

12 Counters Mod 2, 5, 10 (2 x 5, 5 x 2)

SKILL EXPERIMENTS

Sr. No. Name of the Experiment

1 Estimation of errors from actual experimental data

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2 Soldering and testing of an astable multivibrator (Tr./IC555)

circuit on PCB

3 Optical Leveling of Spectrometer

4 Schuster’s method

5 Laser beam profile

6 Use of electronic balance: Find the density of a solid cylinder

7 Dual trace CRO: Phase shift measu rement

8 C1/C2 by B G

9 Internal resistance of voltage and current source

10 Use of DMM to test diode, transistor and factor

References:

1. Advan ced course in Practical Physics : D. Chattopadhya, PC. Rakshit &

B. Saha (8th Edition) Book & Allied Pv t. Ltd.

2. BSc Practical Physics: Harnam Singh. S. Chand & Co. Ltd. – 2001.

3. A Text book of Practical Physics: Samir Kumar Ghosh New Central Book

Agency (4th edition).

4. B Sc. Practical Physics: C. L. Arora (1st Edition) – 2001 S. Chand & Co.

Ltd.

5. Practical Physics : C. L. Squires – (3rd Edition) Cambridge University

Press.

6. University Practical Physics : D C Tayal. Himalaya Publication.

7. Advanced Practical Physics : Worsnop & Flint.

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SEMESTER VI

Theory Course – USPH601: Classical Mechanics

Learning outcomes:

This course will introduce the students to different aspects of classical

mechanics. They would understand the kinds of motions that can occur under

a central potential and their applications to planetary orbits. The students

should also appreciate the effect of moving coordinate system, rectilinear as

well as rotating. The students are expected to learn the concepts needed for the

important formalism of Lagrange’s equations and derive the equations using

D’Alembert’s principle . They should also be able to solve simple examples using

this formalism. The introduction to simple concepts from fluid mechanics and

understanding of the dynamics of rigid bodies is also expected. Finally, they

should appreciate the drastic effect of add ing nonlinear corrections to usual

problems of mechanics and nonlinear mechanics can help understand the

irregularity we observe around us in nature.

Unit - I Central Force (15 lect.)

1. Motion under a central force, the central force inversely pro portional to the

square of the distance, Elliptic orbits, The Kepler problem.

2. Moving origin of coordinates, Rotating coordinate systems, Laws of motion

on the rotating earth, The Foucault pendulum, Larmor’s theorem.

KRS: 3.13 - 3.15, 7.1 - 7.5.

Unit -II Lagrange’s equations (15 lect.)

1. D’Alembert’s principle, Constraints, Examples of holonomic constraints,

examples of nonholonomic constraints, degrees of freedom and generalized

coordinates, virtual displacement, virtual work, D’Alembert’s p rinciple ,

illustrative problems.

2. Lagrange’s equations (using D’Alembert’s principle), properties of Lagrange’s

equations, illustrative problems, canonical momentum, cyclic or ignorable

coordinates.

PVP: 4.2 to 4.9, 5.2 to 5.4, 7.2, 7.3.

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Unit -III Fluid Motio n and Rigid body rotation (15 lect.)

1. Kinematics of moving fluids, Equation of motion for an ideal fluid,

Conservation laws for fluid motion, Steady flow.

2. Rigid dynamics: introduction, degrees of freedom, rotation about an axis:

orthogonal matrix, Eu ler’s theorem, Eulerian angles, inertia tensor, angular

momentum of rigid body, Euler’s equation of motion of rigid body, free motion

of rigid body, mot ion of symmetric top (without no tation).

KRS : 8.6 to 8.9

PVP: 16.1 to 16.10

Unit -IV Non Linear Me chanics (15 lect.)

1. Nonlinear mechanics: Qualitative approach to c haos, The anharmonic

oscillator, Numerical solution of Duffing’s equation.

2. Transition to chaos: Bifurcations and strange attractors, Aspects of chaotic

behavior (Logistic map).

BO: 1 1.1, 11.3 to 11.5

References

1. PVP: Classical Mechanics, P. V. Panat (Narosa).

2. KRS: Mechanics : Keith R. Symon, (Addision Wesely) 3rd Ed.

3. BO: Classical Mechanics - a Modern Perspective: V. D. Barger and M. G.

Olsson. (Mc Graw Hill Inte rnational 1995 Ed.)

Additional References

1. Classical Mechanics: Herbert Goldstein (Narosa 2nd Ed.).

2. An Introduction to Mechanics: Daniel Kleppner & Robert Kolenkow

Tata Mc Graw Hill (Indian Ed. 2007).

3. Chaotic Dynamics - an introduction: Bak er and Gollub

(Cambridge Univ. Press).

4. Classical Mechanics: J. C. Upadhyaya (Himalaya Publishing House).

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Theory Course – USPH602: Electronics

Learning Outcome:

On successful completion of this course students will b e able to:

1. Understand the basics of semiconductor devices and their applications.

2. Understand the basic concepts of operational amplifier: its prototype and

applications as instrumentation amplifier, active filters, comparators and

waveform generation.

3. Understand the basic concepts of timing pulse generation and regulated

power supplies

4. Understand the basic electronic circuits for universal logic building blocks

and basic concepts of digital communication.

5. Develop quantitative problem solving skills in all the topics covered.

Unit - I (15 lect.)

1. Field effect transistors: JFET: Basic ideas, Drain curve, The

transconductance curve, Biasing in the ohmic region and the active region,

Transconductance, JFET common source amplifier, JFET analog switch,

multiplexer, voltage controlled resistor, Current sourcing.

2. MOSFET: Depletion and enhancement mode, MOSFET operation and

characteristics, digital switching.

3. SCR – construction, static characteristics, Analysis of the operation of SCR,

Gate Trigger ing Characteristics, Variable half wave rectifier and Variable full

wave rectifier, Current ratings of SCR.

4. UJT: Construction, Operation, characteristics and application as a

relaxation oscillator.

1. MB: 13.1 to 13.9

2. MB: 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.6.

3. AM: 28.1 , 28.5

Unit -II (15 lect.)

1. Differential Amplifier using transistor: The Differential Amplifier, DC and AC

analysis of a differential amplifier, Input characteristic -effect of input bias,

offset current and input offset voltage on output, common mo de gain, CMRR.

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2. Op Amp Applications: Log amplifier, Instrumentation amplifiers, Voltage

controlled current sources (grounded load), First order Active filters, Astable

using OP AMP, square wave and triangular wave generator using OP AMP,

Wein -bridge os cillator using OP AMP, Comparators with Hysteresis, Window

Comparator.

1. MB: 17.1 to 17.5

2. 2. MB: 20.5, 20.8, 21.4, 22.2, 22.3, 22.7, 22.8, 23.

3.

Unit -III (15 lect.)

1. Transistor Multivibrators: Astable, Monostable and Bistable Multivibrators,

Schm itt trigger.

2. 555 Timer: Review Block diagram, Monostable and Astable operation

Voltage Controlled Oscillator, Pulse Width modulator, Pulse Position

Modulator, Triggered linear ramp generator.

3. Regulated DC power supply: Supply characteristics, s eries voltage regulator,

Short circuit protection (current limit and fold back) Monolithic linear IC

voltage Regulators. (LM 78XX, LM 79XX, LM 317, LM337).

1. AM: 18.11

2. KVR: 14.5.2.1, 14.5.2.5, 14.5.2.6, 14.5.4.1

3. MB: 23.8, 23.9

4. MB: 24.1, 24.3, 24.4

,,,,,,,

Unit -IV (15 lect.)

1. Logic families: Standard TTL NAND, TTL NOR, Open collector gates, Three

state TTL devices, MOS inverters, CMOS NAND and NOR gates, CMOS

characteristics.

2. Digital Communication Techniques: Digital Transmission of Data, Benefits of

Digital Communication, Disadvantages of Digital Communication, Parallel and

Serial Transmission, Pulse Modulation, Comparing Pulse -Modulation Methods (

PAM, PWM, PPM), Pulse -Code Modulation.

1. ML: 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7, 7.2 to 7.4.

2. 2. LF: 7.1, 7.2, 7 .4

3.

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References

1. MB: Electronic Principles , Malvino & Bates -7th Ed TMH Publication.

2. AM: Electronic Devices and Circuits , Allen Mottershead -PHI Publication.

3. KVR: Functional Electronics , K.V. Ramanan -TMH Publication.

4. ML: Digi tal Principl es and Applications, Malvino and Leach

(4th Ed)(TMH).

5. LF: Communication Electronics: Principles and applications , Louis E

Frenzel 4th edition TMH Publications.

Theory Course – USPH603: Nuclear Physics

Objectives:

The course is built on exp loring the fundamentals of nuclear matter as well as

considering some of the important applications of nuclear physics. Topics

include decay modes – (alpha, beta & gamma decay), nuclear models (liquid

drop model, introduction to shell model), Applications of Nuclear Physics in the

field of particle accelerators and energy generation, nuclear forces and

elementary particles. The lecture course will be integrated with problem

solving.

Learning Outcomes:

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to

understand

the fundamental principles and concepts governing classical nuclear and

particle physics and have a knowledge of their applications interactions of

ionizing radiation with matter the key techniques for particle accelerators

the physical processes invol ved in nuclear power generation.

Knowledge on elementary particles will help student s to understand the

fundamental constituents of matter and lay foundation for the

understanding of unsolved questions about dark matter, antimatter and

other research oriented topics.

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Unit - I Alpha & Beta Decay (15 lect.)

1. Alpha d ecay: Velocity, energy, and Absorption of alpha particles: Range,

Ionization and stopping power, Nuclear energy levels. Range of alpha particles,

alpha particle spect rum, Fine structure, long range alpha particles, Alpha

decay paradox: Barrier penetration (Gamow’s theory of alpha decay and Geiger -

Nuttal law).

2. Beta decay: Introduction, Velocity and energy of beta particles, Energy

levels and decay schemes, Continuou s beta ray spectrum -Difficulties

encountered to understand it, Pauli’s neutrino hypothesis, Detection of

neutrino, Energetics of beta decay.

1. IK: 13. 1, 13.2, 13.5, SBP : 4. II. 1, 4. II. 2, 4. II. 3, 1.II.3

2. IK: 14.1, 14.7 , SBP: 4. III. 1, 4. III. 2, 4 . III. 3, 4. III. 5, SN G : 5.5.

Unit -II Gamma Decay & Nuclear Models (15 lect.)

1. Gamma decay: Introduction, selection rules, Internal conversion, nuclear

isomerism, Mossbauer effect.

2. Nuclear Models: Liquid drop model, Weizsacker’s semi -empirica l mass

formula, Mass parabolas - Prediction of stability against beta decay for

members of an isobaric family, Stability limits against spontaneous fission.

Shell model (Qualitative), Magic numbers in the nucleus.

1. SBP: 4. IV. 1, 4. IV.2, 4. IV. 3, 4. IV. 4, 9.4

2. SBP: 5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5. AB: 11.6 -pages (460,461).

Unit -III Nuclear Energy & Particle Accelerators (15 lect.)

1. Nuclear energy: Introduction, Asymmetric fission - Mass yield, Emission of

delayed neutrons, Nuclear release in fission, Nature of f ission fragments,

Energy released in the fission of U235, Fission of lighter nuclei, Fission chain

reaction, Neutron cycle in a thermal nuclear reactor (Four Factor Formula),

Nuclear power and breeder reactors, Natural fusion Possibility of controlled

fusion.

2. Particle Accelerators: Van de Graaff Generator, Cyclotron, Synchrotron,

Betatron and Idea of Large Hadron Collider.

1. SBP: 6.1, 6.3 to 6.9, 9.6, 9.7, 8.1,8.2,8.3

2. SBP: 1.I.4 (i), 1.I.4 (ii), 1.I.4 (iii), 1.I.4 (iv), 6.9, AB: 13.3

,,,,,,,

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Unit -IV Nuclear force & Elementary particles (15 lect.)

1. Nuclear force: Introduction, Deuteron problem, Meson theory of Nuclear

Force - A qualitative discussion.

2. Elementary particles: Introduction, Classification of elementary particles,

Particle interactio ns, Conservation laws (linear &angular momentum, energy,

charge, baryon number & lepton number), particles and antiparticles

(Electrons and positrons, Protons and anti -protons, Neutrons and anti -

neutrons, Neutrinos and anti -neutrinos), Photons, Mesons, Qu ark model

(Qualitative).

1. SBP: 8.6

2. DCT: 18.1, 18.2,18.3, 18.4 , 18.5 to 18.9 AB: 13.5

References

1. AB: Concepts of Modern Physics: Arthur Beiser, Shobhit Mahajan, S Rai

Choudhury (6th Ed.) (TMH).

2. SBP: Nuclear Physics , S.B. Patel (Wiley Eas tern Ltd.).

3. IK: Nuclear Physics , Irving Kaplan (2nd Ed.) (Addison Wesley).

4. SNG: Nuclear Physics, S. N. Ghoshal (S. Chand & Co.)

5. DCT: Nuclear Physics, D. C. Tayal (Himalayan Publishing House) 5th ed.

Additional References

1. Modern Physics : Kenneth Krane (2nd Ed.), John Wiley & Sons.

2. Atomic & Nuclear Physics: N Subrahmanyam, Brij Lal.

(Revised by Jivan Seshan .) S. Chand.

3. Atomic & Nuclear Physics: A B Gupta & Dipak Ghosh Books & Allied (P)

Ltd.

4 Introduction to Elementary Particles: David Griffith, Second Revised

Edition, Wiley -VCH.

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Theory Course – USPH604: Special Theory of Relativity

Learning outcome s:

This course introduces students to the essence of special relativity which

revolutionized the concept of physics in the last century by unifying space and

time, mass and energy, electricity and magnetism. This course also give s a very

brief introduction of general relativity. After the complet ion of the course the

student should be able to

1. Understand the significance of Michelson Morley experiment and failure of

the existing theories to explain the null result

2. Understand the importance of postulates of special relativity, Lorentz

transformati on equations and how it changed the way we look at space and

time, Absolutism and relativity, Common sense versus Einstein concept of

Space and time.

3. Understand the transformation equations for: Space and time, velocity ,

frequency, mass, momentum, force, Energy, Charge and current density ,

electric and magnetic fields.

4. Solve problems based on length contraction, time dilation, velocity addition ,

Doppler effect, mass energy relation and resolve paradoxes in relativity like

twin paradox etc.

Unit - I (15 lect.)

Introduction to Special theory of relativity :

Inertial and Non -inertial frames of reference, Galilean transformations,

Newtonian relativity, Electromagnetism and Newtonian relativity. Attempts to

locate absolute frame: Michelson - Morley experi ment (omit derivation part),

Attempts to preserve the concept of a preferred ether frame: Lorentz Fitzgerald

contraction and Ether drag hypothesis ( conceptual ), Stellar aberration, Attempt

to modify electrodynamics .

Relativistic Kinematics - I: Postulate s of the special theory of relativity,

Simultaneity, Derivation of Lorentz transformation equations. Some

consequences of the Lorentz transformation equations: length contraction, time

dilation and meson experiment, The observer in relativity.

RR: 1.1 to 1.9, 2.1 to 2.5

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Unit -II (15 lect.)

Relativistic Kinematics - II: The relativistic addition of velocities,

acceleration transformation equations, Aberration and Doppler effect in

relativity, The common sense of special relativity.

The Geome tric Representation of Space -Time: Space -Time Diagrams,

Simultaneity, Length contraction and Time dilation, The time order and space

separation of events, The twin paradox.

RR: 2.6 to 2.8 , Supplementary topics A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3 .

Unit -III (15 lec t.)

Relativistic Dynamics : Mechanics and Relativity, The need to redefine

momentum, Relativistic momentum, Alternative views of mass in relativity,

The relativistic force law and the dynamics of a single particle, The equivalence

of mass and energy, The t ransformation properties of momentum, energy and

mass. RR: 3.1 to 3.7

,,,,,,,

Unit -IV (15 lect.)

Relativity and Electromagnetism : Introduction, The interdependence of

Electric and Magnetic fields, The Transformation for E and B, The field of a

uniformly moving point charge, Force and fields near a current -carrying wire,

Force between moving charges, The invariance of Maxwell’s equations.

The principle of equiv alence and general relativity, Gravitational red shift.

RR: 4.1 to 4.7 . Supplement ary topic C1, C2, C3, C4.

Note: (A good number of problems to be solved from Resnick).

References

1. RR: Introduction to Special Relativity: Robert Resnick (Wiley Student Edition).

2. Special theory of Relativity: A. P. French.

3. Very Special Relat ivity – An illustrated guide: by Sander Bais - Amsterdam

University Press.

4. Chapter 1: Concepts of Modern Physics by Arthur Beiser.

5. Chapter 2: Modern Physics by Kenneth Krane.

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SEMESTER VI

The T. Y. B. Sc. Syllabus integrates the regular practic al work with a series of

demonstration experiments and the project. There will be separate passing

head for project work. D uring the teaching and examination of Physics

laboratory work, simple modifications of experimental parameters may be

attempted. Atte ntion should be given to basic skills of experimentation which

include:

i) Understanding relevant concepts.

ii) Planning of the experiments.

iii) Layout and adjustments of the equipments

iv) Understanding designing of the experiments

v) Attempts to make the experiments open ended

vi) Recording of observations and plotting of graphs

vii) Calculation of results and estimation of possible errors in the observation

of results.

i) Regular Physics Experiments: A minimum of 06 experiments from e ach of

the practical course are to be performed and reported in the journal.

ii) Demonstration Experiments: The demonstration experiments are to be

performed by the teacher in the laboratory and students should be encouraged

to participate and take obser vation wherever possible.

Demonstration experiments are designed to bring about interest and

excitement in Physics. Students are required to enter details of these

‘demonstration’ experiments in their journal.

The certified journal must contain a minimum of 12 regular experiments

(06 from each practical course), MINIMUM 06 demonstration experiments in

semester VI. A separate index and certificate in journal is must for each course

in each semester.

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iii) Project Details:

a) Project Includes: Review articles/Simulation on PC on any concept in

Physics/ Comparative & differentiative study/Improvement in the existing

experiment (Design and fabrication concept) /Extension of any regular

experiment/Attempt to make experiment open -ended/Thorough survey of

existing active components (devices, ICs, methods, means, technologies,

generations, applications etc. / any innovative projects using the concept

of physics .

b) Students/project : 02 (maximum)

c) Evaluation of the project : The follow ing points sh all be considered.

Working model (Experimental or Concept based simulation)

Understanding of the project

Data collection

Data Analysis

Innovation/difficulty

Report

There will be THREE turns of three hours each for the examination of

practical courses.

SEMESTER VI

PRACTICAL COURSE: USPHP07

Sr. No. Name of the Experiment

1 Surface tension of m ercury by Quincke’s method

2 Thermal conductivity by Lee’s method

3 Study of JFET characteristics

4 JFET as a common source amplifier

5 JFET as switch (seri es and shunt)

6 UJT characteristics and relaxation oscillator

7 Study of Pulse width modulation (BB)

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8 Study of Pulse position modulation (BB)

9 Determination of h/e by photocell

10 R. P. of Prism

11 Double refraction

12 Lloyd’s single mirror: deter mination of wavelength

PRACTICAL COURSE: USPHP08

Sr. No. Name of the Experiment

1 Determination of M/C by using BG

2 Self-inductance by Anderson’s bridge

3 Hall effect

4 Solar cell characteristics and determination of V oc, Isc and Pmax

5 Design an d study of transistorized monostable multivibrator (BB)

6 Design and study of transistorized bistable multivibrator (BB)

7 Application of Op -Amp as a window comparator

8 Application of Op -Amp as a Log amplifier

9 Application of IC 555 as a voltage to frequency converter (BB)

10 Application of IC 555 as a voltage to time converter (BB)

11 LM-317 as variable voltage source

12 Shift register

DEMONSTRATION EXPERI MENTS

Sr. No. Name of the Experiment

1 Open CRO, Power Supply, and Signal Ge nerator: block diagram s

2 Data sheet s: Diodes, Transistor, Op -amp & Optoelectronic devices

3 Zeeman Effect

4 Michelson’s interferometer

5 Constant deviation spectrometer (CDS)

6 Digital storage oscilloscope (DSO)

7 Determination of Op -Amp parameters (off set voltage, slew rate,

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input impedance, output impedance, A CM)

8 Transformer ( theory, construction and working), types of

transformers and energy losses associated with them .

9 Use of LCR meter

10 Lux meter / Flux meter

References:

1. Advanced co urse in Practical Physics: D. Chattopadhya, PC. Rakshit &

B. Saha (8th Edition) Book & Allied (P) Ltd.

2. BSc Practical Physics: Harnam Singh. S. Chand & Co. Ltd. – 2001.

3. A Text book of Practical Physics: Samir Kumar Ghosh New Central Book

Agency (4th edition).

4. B Sc. Practical Physics : C. L. Arora (1st Edition ) – 2001 S. Ch and & Co.

5. Pract ical Physics: C. L. Squires – (3rd Edition) Cambridge Univ . Press.

6. Universi ty Practical Physics: D C Tayal, Himalaya Publication.

7. Advanced Practi cal Physics: Worsnop & Flint.