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UNIVERSITY OF

MUMBAI

Syllabus for sem V &

VI

Pr ogr am: B.Sc.

C our se: Physi cs

(Credit Based Semester and Grading System with

effect from the academic year 2017–2018)

UNIVERSITY OF

MUMBAI

Syllabus for sem V &

VI

Pr ogr am: B.Sc.

C our se: Physi cs

(Credit Based Semester and Grading System with

effect from the academic year 2017–2018)

T.Y.B.Sc. Physics Syllabus : Credit Based Semester and Grading

System

To be implemented from the Academic year 2017 -2018

SEMESTER V

Theory

Course UNIT TOPICS

Credits

L /

Week

USPH501 I

Mathematical Methods in

Physics

2.5

4

II Mathematical Methods in

Physics

III

Thermal and Statistical

Physics

IV Thermal and Statistical

Physics

USPH502

I Solid State Physics

2.5

4

II Solid State Physics

III Solid State Physics

IV Solid State Physics

USPH503

I Atomic and Molecular

Physics

2.5

4

II Atomic and Molecular

Physics

III Atomic and Molecular

Physics

IV Atomic and Molecular

Physics

USPH504

I Electrodynamic s

2.5

4

II Electrodynamics

III Electrodynamics

IV Electrodynamics

Practicals

USPHP05 Practicals of Course USPH501 + Course

USPH502 3 8

USPH P06 Practicals of Course USPH503 + Course

USPH504

3 8

Scheme of examination: Theory;

(A) Internal Examination: 25 mark

One Class Test/case study/online examination to be conducted in the

given semester 20 Marks

Overall conduct as a responsible learner, communication and leadership

quali ties in organizing related academic activities Marks05

(B) External Examination : 75 marks

i. Each theory paper shall be of two and half hour duration.

Each paper shall consist of FIVE questions. All questions are compulsory and will have

internal

option.

Q – I is from Unit - 1,

Q – II is from Unit - 2,

Q - III is from Unit - 3,

Q - IV is from Unit - 4,

Q - V will consist of questions from all the FOUR units with equal weightage of

marks allotted to each unit.

ii) Practicals : There will not be any internal examination for practical. The External

examination per practical course will be conducted as per the following scheme,

Sr. No Particulars of External Practical Examination Marks%

1 Laboratory Work 80

2 Journal 10

3 Viva 10

TOTAL 100

A candidate will be allowed to appear for the practical examination only if the candidate submits a certified journal of TYBSc Physics or a certificate from the Head of the

Department to the effect that the candidate has completed the practical course of

TYBSc Physics as per the minimum requirements.

iii) Visits to industry, national research laboratories, and scientific exhibitions should be

encouraged.

SEMESTER V

Theory Course - USPH501: Mathematical, Thermal and Statistical Physics

Unit I: Probability 15 lectures

Review of basic concepts: sample space, events, independent events, conditional

probability, probability theorems, permutations and combinations, discrete and

continuous random variables, binomial distribution, joint distributions and covariance,

the normal distribution, the Poisson distribution, statistics and experimental

measurements, Chebyshev’s inequality, law of large numbers, central limit theorem.

Unit II: Differential Equations and Transforms 15 lectures

1. Second- order nonhomogeneous linear differential equations with constant

coefficients: the method of successive integrations and the method of undetermined

coefficients. Forced vibrations and resonance. The Laplace transform and its use in the

solution of differential equations.

2. Fourier transforms: inroduction, formal development of the complex Fourier

transform, cosine and sine transforms, the transforms of derivatives (with proofs),

solutions of partial differential equations (wave and heat equation) using Fourier

transforms.

Unit III: Thermal and Statistical Physics:

Description of a system : Why statistical approach, Particle -states, System -states,

Microstates and Macro states of a system, Equilibrium and Fluctuations, Irreversibility,

The equiprobability postulate, Statistical ensemble, Number of states accessible to a

system, Phase space, Reversible processes.

2. Thermal and Adiabatic Interactions :

Thermal interaction, Canonical distribution, Energy fluctuations, Entropy of a

system in a heat bath, Helmholtz free energy, Adiabatic interaction and enthalpy,

General interaction and the first law of thermodynamics, Infi nitesimal general

interaction, Gibbs free energy, Phase transitions.

Unit IV: Thermal and Statistical Physics:

1. Statistical Mechanics :

Phase space, The probability of a distribution, The most probable distribution,

Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics, Molecular speeds.

2. Quantum Statistics :

Bose -Einstein statistics, Black -body radiation, The Rayleigh- Jeans formula, The

Planck radiation formula, Fermi -Dirac statistics, Comparison of results, Transition

between states.

References:

Unit I – MB Chapter 15

Unit II: CH – Sections 5.2.4, 8.2.1, 8.2.2, 8.2.4

MB – Sections 8.6, 8.8 and 8.9

UNIT - III

1. LG : 1.1 to 1.11

2. LG : 2.1, 2.3 to 2.11 UNIT - V

1. AB : 15.1 to 15.5

2. AB : 16.1 to 16.7

References :

1.:MB: Mathematical Methods in the Physical sciences : - Mary L. Boas Wiley India

3

rd ed.

2. LG. : Statistical and Thermal Physics - : S. Lokanathan and R. S. Gambhir.

an introduction (Prentice Hall of India : 2008)

3. AB. : Perspectives of Modern Physics : Arthur Beiser.

(Mc Graw Hill International )

Additional References :

1. Mathematical Physics : A K Ghatak, Chua – 1995

Macmillian India Ltd.

2. Mathematical Method of Physics : Riley, Hobson and Bence.

Cambridge (Indian edition).

3. Mathematical Physics : H. K. Dass, S. Chand & Co.

4. Mathematical Methods of Physics : Jon Mathews & R. L. Walker,

W A Benjamin inc.

5. A Treatise on heat : Saha and Srivastava.

(Indian press, Allahabad)

6. Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics (Mc Graw - Hill) : F. Reif

SEMESTER V Theory Course - USPH502: Solid State Physics

Unit I : Crystal Physics 15 lectures

1. Lattice points and space lattice, The basis and crystal structure, Unit Cells and

lattice parameters, Primitive Cells, Crystal Systems, Crystal Symmetry, Bravais space

lattices, Metallic crystal structures, relation between the density of crystal material and

lattice constant in a cubic lattice, Directions, Planes, Miller Indices, Important planes in

simple cubic structure, separation between lattice planes in a cubic crystal, Reciprocal

Lattice(Omit Vector- algebraic discussion), X -ray Diffraction

2. Classical free electron theory of metals, Drawbacks of classical theory, Relaxation

time, Collision time and mean free path

Unit II : Electrical properties of metals 15 lectures

1.Quantum theory of free electrons, Fermi Dirac statistics and electronic distribution in

solids, Density of energy states and Fermi energy, The Fermi distribution function, Heat capacity of the Electron gas, Mean energy of electron gas at 0 K, Electrical conductivity

from quantum mechanical considerations.

1.Band theory of solids, The Kronig- Penney model (Omit eq. 6.184 to 6.188),

Brillouin zones, Number of wave functions in a band, Motion of electrons in a one-

dimensional periodic potential, Distinction between metals, insulators and intrinsic

semiconductors.

Unit III : Conduction in Semiconductors 15 lectures

1.Electrons and Holes in an Intrinsic Semiconductor, Conductivity, Carrier

concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor, Donor and Acceptor impurities, Charge

densities in a semiconductor, Fermi level in extrinsic semiconductors, Diffusion,

Carrier lifetime, The continuity equation, Hall Effect

2.Semiconductor -diode Characteristics : Qualitative theory of the p- n junction, The p-

n junction as a diode, Band structure of an open- circuit p -n junction

Unit IV : Diode, magnetism and superconductivity 15 lectures

1.The current components in a p- n junction diode, Quantitative theory of p -n diode

currents, The Volt -Ampere characteristics, The temperat ure dependence of p- n

characteristics, Diode resistance.

2. Magnetic Properties of matter:

Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism, The origin of permanent magnetic dipoles, Diamagnetism and Larmor precession, The static paramagnetic susceptibility

3. Superconductivity : A survey, Mechanism of Superconductors, Effects of magnetic

field, Critical Currents, The Meissner effect, The penetration depth, Type I and Type II

Superconductors.

References :

UNIT I SOP : Chapter 4 : II,III,IV,V, VI, VII, XIV,XV, XVI, XVIII, XX, XXII, XXV, XXVI

Chapter 6: II,III, IV

UNIT II SOP: Chapter 6: V, XIV,XV,XVI, XVII, XVIII,XX Chapter 6: XXXVII,

XXXVIII, XXXIX,XXXX, XXXXI

UNIT III MH : 4.1 to 4.10 and 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

UNIT IV : MH : 5.4 to 5.8

D: 18.1 to 18.4

SOP: Chapter 8 : II, III, IV, VI, VII, XII, XIII

1. SOP : Solid State Physics : S. O. Pillai, New Age International. 6th ed.

2. SOP : Modern Physics and Solid State Physics : Problems and solutions

New Age International.

3. MH : E lectronic Devices and Circuits :Millman, Halkias & Satyabrata Jit. (3rd Ed.)

Tata McGraw Hill.

4. D: Solid State Physics : A. J. Dekker, Prentice Hall

SEMESTER V

Theory Course - USPH503: Atomic and Molecular Physics

UNIT I 15 lectures

1. Schrödinger’s equation for Harmonic oscillator, its solution by operator

method. Graphical representation of its energy level and wave functions.

2. Hydrogen atom: Schrödinger’s equation for Hydrogen atom, Separation of

variables, Quantum Numbers: Total quantum number, Orbital quantum number,

Magnetic quantum number. Angular momentum, Electron probability density

(Radial part).

UNIT II 15 lectures

1. Electron Spin: The Stern- Gerlach experiment, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle

Symmetric and Antisymmetric wave functions.

2. Spin orbit coupling, Hund’s Rule, Total angular mom entum, Vector atom model,

L-S and j -j coupling. Origin of spectral lines, Selection rules.

UNIT III 15 lectures

1. Effect of Magnetic field on atoms, The normal Zeeman effect and its explanation

(Classical and Quantum), The Lande g factor, Anomalous Zeeman effect.

2. Paschen -Back effect, Paschen- Back effect of principal series doublet, Selection

rules for Paschen- Back effect.

I UNIT V 15 lectures

1. Molecular Spectra (Diatomic Molecules): Rotational energy levels, Rotational

spectra, Vibrational energy levels, Vibrational -Rotational spectra.

Electronic Spectra of Diatomic molecules: The Born- Oppenheimer approximation,

Intensity of vibrational -electronic spectra : The Franck -Condon principle.

2. Raman Effect: Quantum Theory of Raman effect, Classical theory of Raman effect,

Pure Rotational Raman spectra : Linear molecules, symmetric top molecules,

Asymmetric top molecules, Vibrational Raman spectra : Raman activity of

vibrations.

References:

UNIT – I.

1. M : 5.2 B : 8.7.

2. AB : 9.1 to 9.9.

UNIT - II

1AB : 10.1, 10.3.

2. (i) B : 10.2, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9. (ii) B : 11.1 and 11.2.

UNIT – III:

1. SA : 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17.

2. W : 10.7, 10.8, 10.9

UNIT – IV:

1.AB : 14.1, 14.3, 14.5, 14.7 BM : 6.11, 6.1.3.

2. BM : 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.1.

References :

1. AB : Perspectives of Modern Physics : Arthur Beiser

McGraw Hill.

2. SA : Introduction to Atomic & Nuclear Physics : H. Semat & J. R. Albright

(5th Ed.) Chapman & Hall.

3. W : Introduction to Atomic Spectra : H. E. White. McGraw Hill.

4 BM : Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy : C. N. Banwell &

E. M. McCash (TMH).(4th Ed.)

5 M : Introduction to Quantum Mechanics : P. T. Mathews (TMH).

SEMESTER V Theory Course - USPH504: Electrodynamics

UNIT I Electrostatics 15 lectures

1. Fiel d lines, Flux and Gauss’ law, The divergence of E , Applications of

Gauss’ law, The curl of E .

Introduction to potential, Comments on potential, Poisson’s equation and

Laplace’s equation, The potential of a localized charge distribution. , Review of conductors

2. First Uniqueness theorem (Without proof), The classic image problem - Infinite

conducting plane

UNIT II Polarization and Magnetostatics 15 lectures

1. Dielectrics, Induced Dipoles, Alignment of polar molecules, Polarization, Bound

charges and their physical interpretation, Gauss’ law in presence of dielectrics, A

deceptive parallel, Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric constant, Energy in dielectric systems.

2. Straight -line currents, The Divergence and Curl of B , Applications of Ampere’s

Law in the case of a long straight wire and a long solenoid, Comparison of

Magneto- statics and Electrostatics.

UNIT III Magnetism and Varying Fields 15 lectures

1. Dia -magnets Paramagnets Ferro magnets, Magnetization, Bound currents and

their physical interpretation, Ampere’s law in magnetized materials, A deceptive

parallel, Magnetic susceptibility and permeability.

2. Energy in magnetic fields, Electrodynamics before Maxwell, Maxwell’s

correction to Ampere’s law, Maxwell’s equations, Magnetic charge, Maxwell’s

equations in matter, Boundary conditions

UNIT IV Electromagnetic waves . 15 lectures

1. The continuity equation, Poynting’s theorem, Newton’s third law in

electrodynamics.

2. The wave equation for E and B, Monochromatic Plane waves, Energy and

momentum in electromagnetic waves, Propagation in linear media, Reflection and

transmission of EM waves at normal incidence.

References:

UNIT – I

1. DG : 2.2.1 to 2.2.4, 2.3.1 to 2.3.4,(2.5.1 to 2.5.4 for review)

2. DG : 3.1.5, 3.2.1 to 3.2.3.

UNIT - II

1. DG : 4.1.1 to 4.1.4, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, 4.4.1, 4.4.3.

2. DG : 5.3.1 to 5.3.4.

UNIT - III

1. DG : 6.1.1, 6.1.4, 6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6.4.1.

2. DG : 7.2.4, 7.3.1 to 7.3.6.

UNIT - IV

1. DG : 8.1.1, 8.1.2., 8.2.1.

2. DG : 9.2.1 to 9.2.3, 9.3.1 to 9.3.2.

References :

DG : Introduction to Electrodynamics : David J. Griffiths (3rd Ed) Prentice Hall of India.

Additional References:

1. Introduction to Electrodynamics: A. Z. Capria and P. V. Panat.

Narosa Publishing House.

2. Engineering Electrodynamics : William Hayt Jr. & John H. Buck (TMH).

3. Electric ity and Magnetism : Navina Wadhwani (PHI – 2010).

SEMESTER V

The T. Y. B. Sc. Syllabus integrates the regular practical work with a series of

demonstration and skill experiments. During the teaching and examination of Physics

laboratory work, simple modif ications of experimental parameters may be attempted.

Attention should be given to basic skills of experimentation which include:

i) Understanding relevant concepts.

ii) Planning of the experiments.

iii) Layout and adjustments of the equipments.

iv) Record ing of observations and plotting of graphs.

v) Calculation of results and estimation of possible errors in the observation of results.

i) Regular Physics Experiments : A minimum of 8 experiments from each of the course are to be performed and reported in the journal.

ii) Skill Experiments : All the skills are compulsory and must be reported in the journal.

Skills will be tested during the examination through viva or practicals

The certified journal must contain a minimum of 16 regular experiments (8 from each group), with all Skills in semester V. A separate index and certificate in journal is must

for each semester course.

There will be two turns of three hours each for the examination of practical courses

SEMESTER V (Practical Course – USPHP05)

USPHP05

1. Determination of “g” by Kater’s pendulum.

2. Flat spiral spring (Y)

3. Stefan’s constant σ

4. R.P. of Prism

5. Goniometer

6. R.I of liquid using laser

7. Rydberg’s constant

8. Edser’s A pattern/step slit

9. FET characteristics

10. Determination of e/m

(Practical Course – USPHP06)

USPHP06

1.Mutual inductance by BG.

2.Hysteresis by magnetometer

3. Maxwell’s bridge

4.Band gap of energy.

5. Schmitt Trigger using OPAMP

6. High pass (first order active filter)

7. Low pass (first order active filter)

8. Wien bridge oscillator

9. Counters Mod 2,5 10 10. LM -317 as voltage regulator

11. LM 317 as current regulator

Skills :

1. Estimation of errors. 2. Soldering advanced circuit.

3. Bread board circuit using IC’s.

4. Optical Leveling of Spectrometer.

5. Laser beam profile.

6. Use of electronic balance : radius of small ball bearing.

7. Dual trace CRO : Phase shift measurement.

8. BG : C1 /C2 by comparing θ1 / θ2.

References :

1. Advanced course in Practical Physics : D. Chattopadhya, PC. Rakshit & B. Saha

(8th Edition) Book & Allied Pvt. Ltd.

2. BSc Practical Physics : Harnam Singh. S. Chand & Co. Ltd. – 2001.

3. A Text book of Practical Physics : Samir Kumar Ghosh New Central Book Agency (4rd edition).

4. B Sc. Practical Physics : C. L. Arora (1st Edition ) – 2001 S. Chand & Co. Ltd.

5. Practical Physics : C. L. Squires – ( 3rd Edition)

Cambridge University Press.

6. University Practical Physics : D C Tayal. Himalaya Publication.

7. Advanced Practical Physics : Worsnop & Flint.

T.Y.B.Sc.

Physics Syllabus:

Credit Based Semester and Grading System

To be implemented from the Academic year 2017 -2018

SEMESTER VI

Theory

Cour se UNIT TOPI CS Credits L / W eek

USPH601

I Classical Mechanics

2.5

4

II Classical Mechanics

III Classical Mechanics

IV Nonlinear Mechanics

USPH602

I Electronics

2.5

4

II Electronics

III Electronics

IV Electronics

USPH603

I Nuclear Physics

2.5

4

II Nuclear Physics

III Nuclear Physics

IV Nuclear Physics

USPH604

I Relativity

2.5

4

II Relativity

III Relativity

IV Relativity

Practicals

USPHP07 Practicals of Course USPH601 + Course

USPH6 02 3 8

USPH P08 Practicals of Course USPH603 + Course

USPH6 04

3 8

SEMESTER VI

Theory Course – USPH601: Classical Mechanics

UNIT I Central Force 15 lectures

1. Motion under a central force, The central force inversely proportional to the square

of the distance, Elliptical orbits. The Kepler problem. Hyperbolic Orbits : The Rutherford problem – Scattering cross section.

2. Moving origin of co- ordinates, Rotating co -ordinate systems, Laws of motion on the

rotating earth, Foucault pendulum, Larmor’s theorem (with proof).

UNIT II Lagrange’s equations 15 lectures

Lagrange’s equations: D’Alembert’s principle, Generalized coordinates,

Lagrange’s equations using D’Alembert’s principle, Exam ples, Systems subject to

constraints, Examples of systems subject to constraints, Constants of motion and ignorable coordinates.

UNIT III Fluid Motion and Rigid body rotation 15 lectures

1. Kinematics of moving fluids, Equation of motion for an ideal fluid, Conservation laws for fluid motion, Steady flow.

2. The rotation of a Rigid body : Motion of a rigid body in space, Euler’s equations of

motion for a rigid body, Euler’s angles, Heavy symmetrical top (without nutation).

UNIT IV Non Linear Mechanics 15 lectures

Non linear mechanics : Qualitative approach to chaos, The anharmonic oscillator,

Numerical solution of Duffing’s equation, Transition to chaos: Bifurcations and strange attractors, Aspects of chaotic behavior.

References :

UNIT – I

1. KRS : Art. 3.13 to 3.16 2. KRS : Art. 7.1 to 7.5

UNIT – II

1. KRS : Art. 9.1 to 9.6 G:1.4

UNIT - III

1. KRS : Art. 8.6 to 8.9

2. KRS : Art. 11.1, 11.2, 11.4, 11.5, BO : 6.7

UNIT - IV

1. BO : Art. 11.1, 11.3 to 11.5 References :

KRS : Mechanics : Keith R. Symon.

(Addision Wesely) 3rd Ed.

BO : Classical Mechanics - : V. D. Barger and M. G. Olsson.

a Modern perspective (Mc Graw Hill International 1995 Ed.)

G : Classical Mechanics : Herbert Goldstein, (Narosa 2nd Ed.)

Additional References :

1. Classical Mechanics : Herbert Goldstein (Narosa 2nd Ed.)

2. An Introduction to Mechanics : Daniel Kleppner & Robert Kol enkow

Tata Mc Graw Hill (Indian Ed. 2007)

3. Chaotic Dynamics - an introduction. : Baker and Gollup.

SEMESTER VI Theory Course – USPH602: Electronics

Unit I

1. Field effect transistors: JFET: Basic ideas, Drain curve, The transconductance

curve, Biasing in the ohmic region and the active region, Transconductance,

JFET common source amplifier, JFET analog switch, multiplexer, voltage

controlled resistor, Current sourcing.

2. MOSFET : Depletion and enhancement mode, MOSFET operation and

charact eristics, digital switching.

3. Thyristors : SCR – Working, Equivalent circuit, important terms, I -V

Characteristics, SCR as a switch, half wave rectifier and full wave rectifier.

TRIAC: Construction, Operation, I -V Characteristics, Applications.

DIAC: Constr uction, Operation, Characteristics and applications.

Unit II

1. Regulated DC power supply: Supply characteristics, series voltage regulator,

Short circuit protection (current limit and fold back) Monolithic linear IC voltage Regulators. (LM 78XX, LM 79XX, LM 317).

2. Differential Amplifier using transistor: The Differential Amplifier, DC and AC

analysis of a differential amplifier, Input characteristic -effect of input bias, offset

current and input offset voltage on output, common mode gain, CMRR.

3. Transistor Multivibrators: Astable, Monostable and Bistable Multivibrators,

Schmitt trigger.

Unit III

1. Op Amp Applications: Log amplifier, Instrumentation amplifiers, Voltage

controlled current sources (grounded load), First order Active filters, Astable

using OP AMP , square wave and triangular wave generator using OP AMP,

Wein -bridge oscillator using OP AMP.

2. 555 Timer: Review Block diagram, Monostable and Astable operation

Voltage Controlled Oscillator, Pulse Width modulator, Triggered linear ramp

generator. Malv ino: 23.8,23.9

Unit IV

1. Logic families: Standard TTL NAND, TTL NOR, Open collector gates, Three

state TTL devices, MOS inverters, CMOS NAND and NOR gates, CMOS

characteristics.

2. Applications of JK flip flop: Types of registers, 4- bit shift register (serial in -serial

out), Asynchronous counters, 4- bit up- down counter, MOD -3, MOD -5, Decade

counter, Shift counter.

3. Electronic communication techniques: Radio broadcasting, Transmission and

reception, Modulation, Amplitude modulation, Modulation factor, Analysis of

amplitude modulated wave, Side band frequencies in AM wave, Transistor

amplitude modulator, Power in AM wave, Limitations of AM

Main References :

Unit -I:

1. MB : Art. 13.1 to 13.9

2. MB: 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.6.

3. VKM : Art. 20.1 to 20.10, 21.1 to 21.6, 21.8, 21.9, 21.10.

UNIT – II:

1. MB : Art 24.1, 24.3, 24.4.

2. MB : Art 17.1 to 17.5.

3. KVR : Art. 14.5.2.1, 14.5.2.5, 14.5.2.6, 14.5.4.1.

UNIT – III:

1. MB : Art. 20.5, 20.8, 21.4, 22.7, 22.8, 23.2. MH : 16.14.

2. MB : Art. 23.8, 23.9.

UNIT – IV:

1. ML : Art. 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7, 7.2 to 7.4.

2. ML : Art 10.1, 10.2, 11.1, 11.3 to 11.5, 11.7

3. VKM : Art. 16.1 to 16.11.

Main References:

1. MB : Electronic Principles : A. P. Malvino and D.J. Bates, (7th Ed.) – (TMH).

2. VKM : Principles of Electronics : V. K. Mehta and Rohit Mehta. S. Chand

Publications. (11th Ed.)

3. KVR : Functional Electronics : K .V. Ramanan (TMH).

4. AM: Electronic Devices and Circuits : Allen Mottershed, PHI learning 2013 Ed

5. ML : Digital Principles and Applications : Malvino and Leach (4th Ed)(TMH).

6. MH : Integrated Electronics : Millman and Halkias, Mc Graw Hill International.

Note : Optoelectronic devices has been removed.

SEMESTER VI Theory Course – USPH603 Nuclear Physics

UNIT I : Alpha & Beta Decay 15 lectures

1. Alpha Decay: Velocity ,energy, and Absorption of alpha particles: Range, Ionization

and stopping power, Nuclear energy levels . Range of alpha particles, alpha particle

spectrum, Fine structure, long range alpha particles, Alpha decay paradox: Barrier

penetration (Gamow’s theory of alpha decay and Geiger -Nuttal law),

2. . Beta decay: Introduction, Velocity and energy of beta particles, Energy levels and

decay schemes , Continuous beta ray spectrum -Difficulties encountered to understand

it, Pauli’s neutr ino hypothesis, Detection of neutrino, Energetic s of beta decay.

UNIT II: Gamma Decay & Nuclear Models 15 lectures

1. Gamma decay: Introduction, Internal conversion, nuclear isomerism, Mossbauer

effect

2 Nuclear Models:

Liquid drop model, Weizsacher’s semi -empirical mass formula, Mass parabolas -

Prediction of stability against beta decay for members of an isobaric family, Stability

limits against spontaneous fission.

Shell model(Qualitative) ,Magic numbers in the nucleus

UNIT III: Particle Accelerators & Energy Generation 15 lectures

1. Particle Accelerators : Van de Graaff Generator , Cyclotron, Synchrot ron ,Betatron

and Idea of Large Hadron Collider

2. Nuclear energy: Introduction, Asymmetric fission - Mass yield, Emission of delayed

neutrons, Nuclear release in fission, Nature of fission fragments, Energy released in the

fission of U235, Fission of lighter nuclei, Fission chain reaction, Neutron cycle in a thermal nuclear reactor (Four Factor Formula), Nuclear reactors, Natural

fusionPossibility of controlled fusion

UNIT IV: Meson theory & Elementary particles 15 lectures

1.Meson theory of Nuclear Force- A qualitative discussion

2. Elementary particles: Introduction, Classification of elementary particles, Particle

Ineractions, Conservation laws( linear &angular momentum ,energy, charge, baryon

number & lepton number),particles and anti particles(Electrons and positrons, Protons

and anti -protons, Neutrons and anti - neutrons, Neutrinos and anti -neutrinos), Photons,

Mesons ,Quark model( Qualitative).

References:

Unit I

1 K : 13. 1, 13.2, 13.5. , . P : 4. II. 1, 4. II. 2, 4. II. 3, 1.II.3

2. K : 14.1, 14.7 P : 4. III. 1, 4. III. 2, 4. III. 3, 4. III. 5 G : 5.5.

Unit II

1. P 4. IV. 1, 4. IV. 3, 4. IV. 4, 9.4.

2. P : 5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5. AB: 11.6- pages (460,461)

Unit III

1. P: 1.I.4 (i), 1.I.4 (ii), 1.I.4 (iii), 1.I.4 (iv), AB 15.7

2. P: 6.1, 6.3 to 6. 9, 9.6, 9.7

Unit IV

1. P :8.6

2. T : 18.1, 18.2,18.3, 18.4 , 18.5 to 18.9 AB : 13.5

1. AB : Concepts of Modern Physics : Arthur Beiser,Shobhit Mahajan,S Rai Choudhury

(6th Ed.) (TMH).

2. P : Nuclear Physics : S.B. Patel (Wiley Eastern Ltd.).

3. K: Nuclear Physics: Irving Kaplan (2nd Ed.) (Addison Wesley).

4. G : Nuclear Physics : S. N. Ghoshal (S. Chand & Co.)

5. T: Nuclear Physics : D. C. Tayal (Himalayan Publishing House) 5th ed.

Additional References.

1. Modern Physics : Kenneth Krane (2nd Ed.) John Wiley & Sons.

2. Atomic & Nuclear Physics : N Subrahmanyam, Brij Lal. (Revised by Jivan Seshan.) S.

Chand.

3. Atomic & Nuclear Physics : A B Gupta & Dipak Ghosh Books & Allied (P) Ltd.

4. Introduction to Elementary Particles: D avid Griffiths, Second Revised Edition,Wiley -

VCH

Theory Course – USPH604: Special Theory of Relativity

UNIT I: Special Theory of Relativity & Relativistic Kinematics 15 lectures

Experimental background of special theory of relativity and relativistic kinematics :

Galilean transformations, Newtonian relativity, Electromagnetism and Newtonian relativity. Attempts to locate absolute frame: Michelson- Morley experiment, Attempts to

preserve the concept of a preferred ether frame: Lorentz Fitzgerald contraction and ether drag hypothesis, Attempt to modify electrodynamics, postulates of the special theory of relativity.

Relativistic Kinematics: Simultaneity, Derivation of Lorentz transformation equations Some consequences of the Lorentz transformation equations : length contraction, time dilation and meson experiment, The observer in relativity

UNIT II: Relativistic Kinematics 15 lectures

Relativistic Kinematics (continued): The relativistic addition of velocities and

acceleration transformation equations, Aberration and Doppler effect in relativity, The

common sense of special relativity.

The Geometric Representation of Space- Time: Space- Time Diagrams, Simultaneity,

Length contraction and Time dilation, The time order and space separation of events, The twin paradox

UNIT III : Relativistic Dynamics 15 lectures

Relativistic Dynamics: Mechanics and Relativity, The need to redefine momentum, Relativistic momentum, Alternative views of mass in relativity, The relativistic force law

and the dynamics of a single particle, The equivalence of mass and energy, The

transf

ormation properties of momentum, energy and mass.

UNIT IV: Relativity and Electromagnetism 15 lectures

Relativity and Electromagnetism: Introduction, The interdependence of Electric and

Magnetic fields, The Transformation for E and B, The field of a uniformly moving point

charge, Force and fields near a current -carrying wire, Force between moving charges,

The invariance of Maxwell’s equations.

The principle of equivalence and general relativity, Gravitational red shift.

References :

UNIT I : RR: 1.1 to 1.6 ,1.8, 1.9 , 2.1, to 2.5

UNIT II: RR 2.6 to 2.8 , Supplementary topics A1 ,A2,A3 , B1 ,B2 , B3

UNIT III : RR 3.1 to 3.7

UNIT IV : RR 4.1 to 4.7 Supplementary topic C1 ,C2,C3 ,C4

References

1. RR : Introduction to Special Relativity : Robert Resnick (Wiley Student Edition)

Special theory of Relativity : A. P. French

SEMESTER VI

The T. Y. B. Sc. Syllabus integrates the regular practical work with a series of

demonstration and skillexperiment s. During the teaching and examination of Physics

laboratory work, simple modifications of experimental parameters may be attempted.

Attention should be given to basic skills of experimentation

which include:

1) Understanding relevant concepts.

2) Planning of the experiments.

3) Layout and adjustments of the equipments.

4) Recording of observations and plotting of graphs.

5) Calculation of results and estimation of possible errors in the observation of results.

i) Regular Physics Experiments: A minimum of 8 experiments from each of the

practical course are to be performed and reported in the journal.

ii) Demo Experiments : The demonstration experiments are to be performed by the teacher in the laboratory and students should be encouraged to participate and t ake

observation wherever possible.

Demonstration experiments are designed to bring about interest and

excitement in Physics. Students are required to enter details of these ‘demo’ experiments in their journal.

The certified journal must contain a minimum of 16 regular experiments (8 from each practical course), with minimum 6 demonstration experiments in semester VI. A

separate index and certificate in journal is must for each semester course.

There will be two turns of three hours each for the examination of practical courses

Practical Course – USPHP07) USPHP07

1. Quincke’s method for surface tension of Mercury

2. Lloyd’s mirror

3. Double refraction

4. FET characteristics

5. UJT characteristics

6. UJT as relaxation oscillator

7. SCR characteristics

8. Photodiode characteristics

9. Phototransistor characteristics

10. Diameter of Lycopodium powder

11. Determination of wavelength of a laser using diffraction grating.

(Practical Course – USPHP08)

USPHP08

1. M/C using B.G.

2. Capacitance by using parallel bridge.

3. Transistorized Astable multivibrator

4. Transistorized Bistable multivibrator

5. Transistorized Monostable multivibrator.

6. Log amplifier using OPAMP

7. Hall effect

8 . 555 timer as ramp generator.

9. Diode as a temperature sensor

10. Shift register.

11. OPAMP as monostable/astable using breadboard

Demonstration Experiments :

1. Open CRO, Power Supply, and Signal Generator: Discuss block diagram.

2. Data sheet reading for diodes, Transistor, Op amp and Optoelectronic devices.

3. Circuit designing – single stage amplifier, Transistor Multivibrator etc. and testing on

breadboard.

4. Equation solver.

5. Amplitude Modulation.

6. Frequency Modulation.

7. Millikan’s oil drop experiment.

8. Zeeman Effect.

9. Michelson’s interferometer.

10. Iodine absorption spectra.

11. Standing waves in liquid using Ultrasonic waves.

12. PC simulation of 8085.

13. Use of PC / μP to control real world parameters.

14. Seven segment display.

15. GM counter

References :

1. Advanced course in Practical Physics : D. Chattopadhya, PC. Rakshit & B. Saha

(8th Edition)Book & Allied Pvt. Ltd.

2. BSc Practical Physics : Harnam Singh

S. Chand & Co. Ltd. – 2001.

3. A Text book of Practic al Physics : Samir Kumar Ghosh

New Central Book Agency (4rd edition).

4. B Sc. Practical Physics : C. L. Arora (1st Edition ) – 2001

S. Chand & Co. Ltd.

5. Practical Physics : C. L. Squires – ( 3rd Edition)

Cambridge University Press.

6. University Pract ical Physics : D C Tayal. Himalaya Publication.

7. Advanced Practical Physics : Worsnop & Flint.

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