## MSc Physics Sem IIIIV Syllabus 2018 19 1 Syllabus Mumbai University by munotes

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AC. - 08/09/2018

Item No. ________

University of Mumbai

Syllabus for Semesters ‐ III & IV

Program ‐ M. Sc .

Course ‐Physics

(Choice Based Credit System )

(With effect from the academic year 201 8‐19)

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Course Structure & Distribution of Credits.

M. Sc. in Physics Program consists of total 16 theory courses, total 6 practical lab

courses and 2 projects spread over four semesters. Twelve theory courses and four

practical lab course are common and compulsory for all the students. Remaining f our

theor y courses can be chosen from the list of elective courses offered by the institute.

Two Lab courses can be chosen from the elective lab courses offered by the institute.

Each theory course will be of 4 (four) credits, each practical lab course will be of 4 (four)

credits and each project will be of 4 (four) credits. A project can be on theoretical

physics, experimental physics, applied physics, development physics, computational

physics or industrial product development. A student earns 24 (twenty four) cre dits per

semester and total 96 (ninety six) credits in four semesters. The course structure is as

follows,

Theory Courses

Paper -1 Paper -2 Paper -3 Paper -4

Semester -I Mathematical

Methods Classical

Mechanics Quantum

Mechanics I Solid State

Physics

Semester -II Advanced

Electronics Electrodynamics Quantum

Mechanics -II Solid State

Devices

Semester -III Statistical

Mechanics Nuclear Physics Elective

Course -1 Elective

Course -2

Semester -IV Experimental

Physics Atomic and

Molecular Physics Elective

Course -3 Elective

Course -4

Practical Lab Courses

Semester -I Lab Course -1 Lab Course -2

Semester -II Lab Course -3 Lab Course -4

Semester -III Project -1 Elective Lab Course -1

Semester -IV Project -2 Elective Lab Course -2

The elective theory courses offered by PG Centers will be from the following list:

1. Nuclear Structure

2. Experimental Te chniques in Nuclear Physics

3. Electronic structure of solids

4. Surfaces and Thin Films

5. Micro controllers and Interfacing

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6. Embedded systems and RT OS

7. Signal Modulation and Transmission Techniques

8. Microwave Electronics, Radar and Optical Fiber Communication

9. Semiconductor Physics

10. Thin Film Physics and Techniques

11. Fundamentals of Materials Science

12. Nanoscience & Nanotechnology

13. Astronomy and Space Physics

14. Laser Physics

15. Group Theory

16. Applied Thermodynamics

17. QuantumField Theory

18. Nuclear Reactions

19. Particle Physics

20. Properties of Solids

21. Crystalline & Non‐crystalline solids

22. Advanced Microprocessor and ARM‐7

23. VHDL and communication Interface

24. Digital Communication Systems and Python Programming

25. Computer Networking

26. Physics of Semiconductor Devices

27. Semiconductor Technology

28. Materials and their applications

29. Energy Studies

30. Galactic & Extragalactic Astronomy

31. Plasma Physics

32. Liquid Crystals

33. Numerical Techniques

34. Polymer Physics

35. Non -linear Dynamics

36. Advanced Statistical Mechanics

Only some electives will be offered by each PG centre. Every year different electives

may be offered depending on the availability of experts in PG centre s.

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Semester III

M.Sc. in Physics Progr am for Semester‐III consists of four theory courses, one

Practical Lab course and one Project course . The details are as follows:

Theory Courses (4): 16 hours per week (One lecture of one hour duration)

Theory Paper Subject Lectures(Hrs.) Credits

PSPH301 Statistical Mechanics 60 04

PSPH302 Nuclear Physics 60 04

* Elective Course 60 04

* Elective Course 60 04

TOTAL 240 16

*: To be chosen from the list below with odd‐even number combination. Odd numbered

course will be paper‐3 and even numbered course will be paper‐4.

Theory Paper Subjects Lectures(Hrs.) Credits

PSPHET301 Nuclear Structures 60 04

PSPHET302 Nuclear Reactions 60 04

PSPHET303 Electronic Structures of Solids 60 04

PSPHET304 Surfaces and Thin Films 60 04

PSPHET305 Microcontrollers and Interfacing 60 04

PSPHET306 Embedded Systems and RTOS 60 04

PSPHET307 Signal Modulation and Transmission

Techniques 60 04

PSPHET308 Microwave Electronics, Radar and

Optical Fiber Communication 60 04

PSPHET309 Semiconductor Physics 60 04

PSPHET310 Thin Film Physics and Techniques 60 04

PSPHET311 Fundamentals of Material Science 60 04

PSPHET312 Nanoscience and nanotechnology 60 04

PSPHET313 Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy 60 04

PSPHET314 Plasma Physics 60 04

PSPHET315 Group Theory 60 04

PSPHET316 Applied Thermodynamics 60 04

PSPHET317 Quantum Field Theory 60 04

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PSPHET318 Non -linear Dynamics 60 04

Project (1) : 8 hours per week

Project Course Total Project Period (Hrs) Credits

PSPHP301 Project -3 120 04

Practical lab course (1): 8 hours per week

Practical Lab

Course Course Practical Lab Sessions

(Hrs) Credits

PSPHPAP302 Advanced Physics Lab -1 120 04

Semester IV

M.Sc. in Physics Program for Semester‐IV consists of four theory courses, one

Practical Lab course and one Project course . The details are as follows:

Theory Courses (4): 16 hours per week (One lecture of one hour duration)

Theory Paper Subject Lectures(Hrs.) Credits

PSPH401 Experimental Physics 60 04

PSPH402 Atomic and Molecular

Physics 60 04

* Elective Course 60 04

* Elective Course 60 04

TOTAL 240 16

*: To be chosen from the list below with odd‐even number combination. Odd numbered

course will be paper‐3 and even numbered course will be paper‐4.

Theory Paper Subjects Lectures(Hrs.) Credits

PSPHET 401 Experimental Techniques in Nuclear

Physics 60 04

PSPHET4 02 Particle Physics 60 04

PSPHET4 03 Crystalline & Non -crystalline Solids 60 04

PSPHET4 04 Properties of Solids 60 04

PSPHET4 05 Advanced Microprocessor and ARM 7 60 04

PSPHET4 06 VHDL and Communication Interface 60 04

PSPHET4 07 Digital Communication Systems and 60 04

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Python Programming

PSPHET4 08 Computer Networking 60 04

PSPHET4 09 Physics of Semiconductor Devices 60 04

PSPHET4 10 Semiconductor Technology 60 04

PSPHET4 11 Materials and their applications 60 04

PSPHET4 12 Energy Studies 60 04

PSPHET4 13 Astronomy and Space Physics 60 04

PSPHET4 14 LASER Physics 60 04

PSPHET4 15 Liquid Crystals 60 04

PSPHET4 16 Numerical Techniques 60 04

PSPHET4 17 Polymer Physics 60 04

PSPHET4 18 Advanced Statistical Mechanics 60 04

Project (1) : 8 hours per week

Project Course Total Project Period (Hrs) Credits

PSPHP 401 Project -4 120 04

Practical lab course (1): 8 hours per week

Practical Lab

Course Course Practical Lab Sessions

(Hrs) Credits

PSPHPAP 402 Advanced Physics Lab -2 120 04

The candidate shall be awarded the degree of Master of Science in Physics (M. Sc. In

Physics) after completing the course and meeting all the evaluation criteria. The Elective

Course t itles will appear in the statement of marks. When the elective courses are

chosen from a particular specialization, the statement of marks shall also carry the

name of the specializations as stated below. Courses selected in third semester for a

particula r specialization are prerequisites for courses in fourth semester for that

specialization.

No. Group of Elective

Courses Chosen Name appearing in the

Statement of Marks Name appearing in

the Degree Certificate

1 PSPHET301,PSPHET302

PSPHET401,PSPHET402 M.Sc. in Physics (Nuclear

Physics) M.Sc. in Physics

2 PSPHET303,PSPHET304

PSPHET403,PSPHET404 M.Sc. in Physics

(Solid State Physics) M.Sc. in Physics

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3 PSPHET305,PSPHET306

PSPHET405,PSPHET406 M.Sc. in Physics

(Electronics -I) M.Sc. in Physics

4 PSPHET307,PSPHET308

PSPHET407,PSPHET408 M.Sc. in Physics

(Electronics -II) M.Sc. in Physics

5 PSPHET309,PSPHET310

PSPHET409,PSPHET410 M.Sc. in Physics

(Solid State Electronics) M.Sc. in Physics

6 PSPHET311,PSPHET312

PSPHET411,PSPHET404 M.Sc. in Physics

(Materials Science) M.Sc. in Physics

7 PSPHET311,PSPHET316

PSPHET411,PSPHET412 M.Sc. in Physics

(Materials for Energy

Technology) M.Sc. in Physics

8 Any other combination

of courses M.Sc. in Physics M.Sc. in Physics

2. Scheme of Examination and Passing:

1. This course will have 40% Term Work (TW) / In ternal Assessment (IA) and 60%

External Assessment (University written examination of 2.5 Hours duration for each

course paper and practical examination of 4 Hours duration for each practical). All

external examinations will be held at the end of each semester and will be

conducted by the University as per the existing norms.

2. Term Work / Internal Assessment ‐ IA (40%) and University examination (60%)‐ shall

have separate heads of passing. For Theory courses, internal assessment shall carry

40 marks and Semester‐end examination shall carry 60 marks for each Theory

Course.

3. To pass, a student has to obtain minimum grade point Eor above separately in the IA

and the external examination.

4. The University (ex ternal) examination for all Theory and Practical courses shall be

conducted at the end of each Semester and the evaluation of Project course and

Project Dissertation will be conducted at the end of the each Semester.

5. The candidates shall appear for externa l examination of 4 theory courses each

carrying 60 marks of 2.5 hours d uration and 2 practical courses(1 Practical Course

and 1 Project Course in M.Sc. Part II) each carrying 100 marks at the end of each

semester.

6. The candidate shall prepare and submit for practical examination a certified

Journalbased on the practical course carried out under the guidance of a faculty

member withminimum number of experiments as specified in the syllabus for each

group.

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7. The candidate shall submit a Project Report / Disserta tion for the Project Course at

the end of each semester as per the guidelines given on the last page (Page No. 86).

3. Standard of Passing for University Examinations:

As per ordinances and regulations prescribed by the University for semester based

credit and grading system.

4. Standard point scale for grading:

Marks Grade Points Grade Performance

80.00 and Above 10 O Outstanding

70 to 79.99 9 A+ Excellent

60 to 69.99 8 A Very Good

55 to 59.99 7 B+ Good

50 to 54.99 6 B Above Average

45 to 49.99 5 C Average

40 to 44.99 4 D Pass

Less Than 40 1 F Fail

5. Grade Point Average (GPA) calculation:

1. GPA is calculated at the end of each semester after grades have been processed

and after any grade s have been updated or changed. Individual assignments /

quizzes / surprise tests / unit tests / tutorials / practicals / project / seminars etc.

as prescribed by University are all based on the same criteria as given above. The

teacher should convert his m arking into the Quality‐Points and Letter‐Grade.

2. Performance of a student in a semester is indicated by a number called Semester

Grade Point Average (SGPA). It is the weighted average of the grade points

obtained in all the subjects registered by the stude nts during the semester

∑

∑

= The number of credits earned in the th course of a semester.

= Grade point earned in the th course

represents number of courses for which the student is registered.

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3. The Final grade will be decided on the basis of Cumulative Grade Point Average

(CGPA) which is weighted average of the grade point s obtained in all the semesters

registered by the learner.

∑

∑

= The number of credits earned in the th course upto the semester for which

the CGPA is calculated

= Grade point earned in the th course *

represents number of courses for which the student is registered up to

the semester for which the CGPA is calculated

* : A letter Grade lower than E in a subject shall not be takeninto consideration for the

calculation of CGPA

The CGPA is rounded upto the two decimal places.

M.Sc. (Physics) Theory Courses

Semester –III

Semester‐III : Paper‐I:

Course no.: PSPH301: Statistical Mechanics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit – I

The Statistical Basis of Thermodynamics - The macroscopic and the microscopic states,

contact between statistics and thermodynamics, the classical ideal gas, The entropy of

mixing and the Gibbs paradox, the enumeration of the microstates

Elements of En semble Theory - Phase space of a classical system , Liouville’s theorem

and its consequences.

The microcanonical ensemble - Examples

Quantum states and the phase space

Unit – II

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The Canonical Ensemble - Equilibrium between a system and a heat reservoir, a system

in the canonical ensemble, physical significance of the various statistical quantities in

the canonical ensemble, expressions of the partition function, the classical systems,

energy fluctuations in the canonical ensemble, correspondence with the m icrocanonical

ensemble, the equipartition theorem and the virial theorem, system of harmonic

oscillators, statistics of paramagnetism, thermodynamics of magnetic systems.

Unit – III

The Grand Canonical Ensemble - Equilibrium between a system and a partic le-energy

reservoir, a system in the grand canonical ensemble, physical significance of the various

statistical quantities, Examples, Density and energy fluctuations in the grand canonical

ensemble, correspondence with other ensembles.

Unit – IV

Formulat ion of Quantum Statistics - Quantum -mechanical ensemble theory: the density

matrix,Statistics of the various ensembles, Examples, systems composed of

indistinguishable particles , the density matrix and the partition function of a system of

free particles.

Note : 50% of time allotted for lectures to be spent in solving problems.

Textbook/Main Reference :

Statistical Mechanics - R. K. Pathria& Paul D. Beale(Third Edition), Elsevier 2011 – Chap.

1 to 5

Additional References :

1. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, Greiner, Neise and Stocker, Springer

1995.

2. Introduction to Statistical Physics, Kerson Huang , Taylor and Francis 2001.

3. Thermal and Statistical Physics, FReif.

4. Statistical Physics, D Amit and Walecka.

5. Statis tical Mechanics, Kerson Huang.

6. Statistical Mechanics, J.K. Bhattacharjee.

7. Non‐equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, J.K. Bhattacharjee.

8. Statistical Mechanics, Richard Feynman.

9. Statistical Mechanics, Landau and Lifshitz.

10. Thermodynamics, H.B. Callen

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Semester‐III : Paper‐II:

Course no.: PSPH302: Nuclear Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I. (12 Lectures + 3 Tutorials)

All static properties of nuclei (charge, mass, binding energy, size, shape, angular

momentum, magnetic dipole momentum, electric qu adrupole momentum, statistics,

parity, isospin), Measurement of Nuclear size and estimation of R 0 (mirror nuclei and

mesonic atom method)

Deuteron Problem and its ground state properties, Estimate the depth and size of

(assume) square wellpotential, Te nsor force as an example of non -central force,

nucleon‐nucleon scattering‐qualitativediscussion on results, Spin‐orbit strong

interaction between nucleon, double scattering experiment.

*Tutorials should include 3 problem solving session based on above ment ioned topics

Unit II. (11 Lectures + 4 Tutorials)

Review of alpha decay, Introduction to Beta decay and its energetic, Fermi

theory :derivation of Fermi's Golden rule , Information from Fermi –curie plots,

Comparative half-lives , selection rules for Fermi and G‐T transitions.

Gamma decay : Multipole radiation, Selection rules for gamma ray transitions,

Gamma ray interaction with matter, and Charge‐particle interaction with matter.

*Tutorials should include 4 problem solving session based on above mentioned topics

Unit III . (11 Lectures + 4 Tutorials)

1. Nuclear Models : Shell Model (extreme single particle): Introduction, Assumptions,

Evidences, Spin‐orbitinteractions, Predictions including Schmidt lines, limitations ,

Collective model - Introduction to Nilsson Model.

2. Nuclear Reactions : Kinematics , scattering and reaction cross sections, Compound

nuclear reaction, direct nuclear reaction. Q-value equation, energy release in fusion

and fission reaction.

*Tutorials should include 4 problem solving session based on above mentioned topics

Unit IV. (11 Lectures + 4 Tutorials)

Introduction to the elementary particle Physics, The Eight fold way, the Quark Model,

theNovember revolution and aftermath, The standard Model, Revision of the four

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forces, crosssections, decays and resonances, Introduction to Quantum Eletrodynamics,

Introduction toQuantum Chromodynamics. Weak interactions and Unification Schemes

(qualitativedescription), Revision of Lorentz transformations, Four‐vectors, Energy and

Momentum.Properties of Neutrino , helicity of Neutrino, Parity, Qualitative discussion

on Parity violation inbeta decay and Wu’s Experiment, Charge conjugation, Time

reversal, Qualitativeintroduction to CP violation and TCP theorem.

*Tutorials should include 4 problem solving session bas ed on above mentioned topics

Main References:

1. Introductory Nuclear Physics, Kenneth Krane, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.

2. Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles, Robert Eisberg

and Robert Resnick, Wiley (2006)

3. Introduction to Elementary Particles, David Griffith, John Wiley and sons.

Other References:

1. Introduction to Nuclear Physics, H. A. Enge, Eddison Wesley

2. Nuclei and Particle s, E. Segre, W. A. Benjamin

3. Concepts of Nuclear Physics, B. L. Cohen

4. Subatomic Particles, H. Fraunfelder and E. Henley, Prentice Hall

5. Nuclear Physics : Experimental and Theoretical, H. S. Hans, New Age International

6. Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics, A. Das & T. Ferbel, World Scientific

7. Introduction to high energ y physics, D. H. Perkins, Addison Wesley

8. Nuclear and Particle Physics, W. E. Burcham and M. Jones, Addison Wesley

9. Introductory Nuclear Physics, S. M. Wong, Prentice Hall.

10. Nuclear Physics: An Introduction, S. B. Patel, New Age International.

11. Nuclear Physics : S. N. Ghoshal

12. Nuclear Physics: Roy and Nigam

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET301: Nuclear Structure (60 lectures, 4 credits)

UNIT I: Microscopic Models I (12 lectures + 3 tutorials)

Experimental evidence for shell effects, Concept of average potential, Spin‐orbit

coupling, Single‐particle shell structure, Predictions of the independent particle shell

model: spin‐parity, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments; Isospin, Two‐

and Multi‐ particle configurations, Residual intera ctions, Pairing interactions: BCS

model.

UNIT II: Microscopic Models II (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

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Fermi‐Gas Model: symmetry, surface and Coulomb energy; Deformed shell model,

Nilsson Hamiltonian, Single‐particle energies in a deformed potential, Shell co rrections

and the Strutinski method, Hartree‐Fock approximation: general variational principle,

Hartree‐Fock equations and applications.

UNIT III: Collective models (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

Liquid drop model and mass formulas, Fission barriers and types of fission;

Parameterization of nuclear surface deformations, Prolate and oblate shapes, Types of

multipole deformations, Rotational states in axially symmetric deformed even‐even and

odd‐A nuclei, Rotation of axially asymmetric nuclei, Octupole and highe r‐order

deformations, Rotation‐vibration coupling in deformed nuclei: beta and gamma

vibrations; Giant resonances;

UNIT IV: Related concepts and selected phenomena

Cranking model and its semi‐classical derivation, Cranking formula and applications,

High‐sp in states and nucleon pair breaking at high angular momentum, Cranked Nilsson

model, Yrast states in nuclei, Nuclear Isomerism and types of isomers, Superdeformed

states in nuclei, Particle‐plus‐rotor model: weak‐coupling limit and strong‐coupling

approxim ation

Suggested Reading:

1. Nuclear Models , by W. Greiner and J.A. Maruhn (Springer 1996)

2. Nuclear Structure from a Simple Perspective , by R. F. Casten (Oxford

UniversityPress 1990)

3. Structure of the Nucleus , by M.A. Preston and R.K. Bhaduri (Levant Books 2008)

4. The Nuclear Many‐Body Problem , by P. Ring and P. Schuck (Springer 1980)

5. Theory of Nuclear Structure , by M.K. Pal (Affiliated East‐West Press 1982)

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET302: Nuclear Reactions (60 lectures, 4 credits)

UNIT I: Basics: (12 lectures + 3 tutorials)

1. Basic elements of nuclear reactions:

i) cross section (σ), mean free path; definition/expression for σ : experimental

and theoretical.

ii) Use of σ to calculate: Stopping length, life time modification of unstable states

in a medium, mean life of a moving particle in an interacting volume, etc.

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iii) Conservation laws: Energy, momentum, angular momentum, parity, isospin.

iv) Frame of reference: Lab. and c.m.

v) Q‐values and threshold energies.

2. Partial wave decomposition, phase s hifts and partial wave analysis of the cross

sections in terms of phase shifts. Behaviour of phase shifts in different situations.

Black sphere scattering. Optical theorem and reciprocity theorem. Unitarily.

3. Optical potential: Basic definition. Relation be tween the imaginary part, W of the

OP and σ abs , and between W and mean free path. Folding model and a high

energy estimate of the OP.

4. Decaying states. Relation between the mean life time and the width of the states.

Energy definition, Lorentzian or Breit‐Wigner shape.

UNIT II: Categorization of Nuclear Reaction mechanisms (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

1. Low energies : Discrete region, Continuum Region

a) Discrete Region:

i) Resonance scattering. Derivation of the resonance cross section from phase

shift description of cross section.

ii) Transmission through a square well and resonances in continuum.

iii) Coulomb barrier penetration for charged particles scattering and centrifugal

barrier for l non‐zero states.

iv) Angular distributions of the particles in resonance sc attering.

v) Application to hydrogen burning in stars.

b) Continuum Region:

i) Bohr’s compound nucleus model, and its experimental verifications.

ii) Statistical parameters and their estimates for the continuum region.

(a) Energy distribution of evaporated particles from compound nucleus.

2) Higher energies: Direct Reaction

i) Cross section in terms of the T‐matrix. Phase space, and its evaluation for

simple cases. Lippmann Schwinger equation for the scattering wave function,

and its formal solution. On‐shell and off‐ shell scattering.

ii) Plane wave and distorted wave approximation to the T‐matrix (PWBA,

DWBA). Application to various direct reactions like, stripping, pick‐up, knock‐

out etc.

iii) High energy scattering. Eikonal approximation to the scattering wave

function. Evaluatio n of scattering cross section in eikonal approximation.

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Suggested Reading:

1. Nuclear Reactions , by Daphne F Jackson (Methen& Co. Ltd.)

2. Theoretical Nuclear Physics , by John M Blatt and Victor F Weisskopf (John Wiley)

3. Direct Nuclear Reaction Theories , by Norman Austern (John Wiley)

4. Concepts of Nuclear Physics , by B. L. Cohen (Tata McGrow‐Hill)

5. Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics , by A. Das & T. Ferbel (World

Scientific)

UNIT III: Physics of ion (stable and unstable) scattering (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

1. Stable ions

(i) Basics of heavy ions: short wave length, large angular momentum transfer,

kinematics and Coulomb potential.

(ii) Classical scattering: rainbow, orbiting, glory, etc. Semi‐classical scattering.

(iii) Quantum mechanical description.

2. Radioactive i on beams (RIB)

(i) From stable to exotic nuclei in nuclear chart. Production and acceleration

of radioactive ion beams (RIB). Shell structure of exotic nuclei and

magicity. Structural properties of unstable nuclei: radii, skins and halos,

spins and electromagn etic moments. Coulomb excitation and knock‐out in

RIBs.

(ii) RIBs and nuclear astrophysics. Energy production in stars.

Nucleosynthesis.

Suggested Reading:

1. Semi‐classical methods for nucleus‐nucleus scattering, by D. M.

Brink(CambridgeUniversity press 1985)

2. Nuclear heavy ion reactions , by P. E. Hodgson (Clarendon press 1978)

3. Introduction to nuclear reactions, by G. R. Satchler (McMillan 1990)

4. Nuclear reactions for astrophysics, by I. J. Thomson and F. Nunes

(CambridgeUniversity press, ISBN 9780521856355, 2009 )

5. Structure and reactions of light nuclei , CRC press, ISBN‐13: 978‐0415308724.

6. Subatomic Physics , by E. M. Henley and A. Garcia (2007), World Scientific.

7. Scattering Theory of Waves and Particles , by Roger G Newton (Spring‐Verlag)

UNIT IV: Intermediate Ene rgy Physics and Non‐nucleonic Degrees of Freedom(11

lectures + 4 tutorials)

1. Introduction: Classification of elementary particles, Isospin, Conservation rules

for strong interaction, Threshold beam energies in pp collisions for the

production of various me sons and baryons.

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2. Proton‐nucleus scattering at high energies: Eikonal approximation, Glauber

model, etc.

3. Electron‐nucleus scattering and the structure of hadrons. Quark model for

hadrons.

4. Pion‐nucleon scattering resonance. Pion‐nucleon coupling, pseudoscal ar and

pseudovector. Pion capture in nuclei. One nucleon and two nucleon mechanisms.

5. Pion production and excitation of nucleonic resonances in p‐p and p‐nucleus

collisions, experiments and theory.

6. An introduction to production of other mesons. Possibility of meson‐nucleus

bound states.

Suggested Reading :

1. Nuclear reactions , by D. F. Jackson (Methuen & Co. 1970)

2. Nuclear Interactions , by SergoDeBenedetti (John Wlley 1964)

3. Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics , by A. Das and T. Ferbel (World

Scientific2009).

4. Subatomic Physics , by E. M. Henley and A. Garcia (World Scientific 2007),

5. Physics of nucleons, mesons, quarks & heavy ions, by Y. K. Gambhir (Ed.)

(Questpublications, Mumbai, ISBN 81‐87099‐25‐9 2003)

6. The pion‐nucleon system , by B. H. Bran sden and R. G. Moorhouse (Princeton

Universitypress 1973)

7. SERC school series Nuclear Physics (1988), B. K. Jain (Ed.) (World Scientific,

ISBN9971506335 1988).

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET303: Electronic Structure of Solids (60 lec tures, 4 credits)

Unit I. Prototype Electronic Structure

1. Free electron gas in Infinite Square well potential – Sommerfeld theory of metals.

2. Electron energy levels in a periodic potential.

3. Nearly‐free electron approximation.

4. The tight‐binding method.

Unit II. Electronic Band Structure Methods

1. Cellular method; Augmented plane‐wave (APW) method; Green’s function (KKR)

method; Orthogonalized plane wave (OPW) method; Pseudopotentials.

2. Band structure / Fermi surface of selected metals – alkali and noble metals, simple

multivalent metals, transition metals, rare‐earths, semi‐metals, semiconductors Si

and Ge.

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3. Fermi surface probes: Electrons in a magnetic field ‐ the de Haas‐van Alfen effect.

Magneto‐ acoustic effect, cyclotron resonance.

Unit III. Motion of Band Electrons

Semi‐classical electron dynamics; Motion of band electrons and the effective mass;

currents in bands and holes; scattering of band electrons; Boltzmann equation and

relaxation time; band electrons in electric field; electrical conductivity of met als;

thermoelectric effects; Wiedemann‐ Franz law; Electrical conductivity of localized

electrons; Band electrons in cross E and B fields – magnetoresistance and Hall effect.

Unit IV. Many – Body Effects

1. The Hartree‐Fock method; exchange and correlation.

2. Density Functional Theory.

3. Computations on simple atoms.

Main Reference s:

1. H Ibach and H Luth, Solid State Physics, 3rded.; Springer, 2003. Chpts. 6,7,9.

2. Neil W Ashcroft and N David Mermin, Solid State Physics . Holt, Rinehart and

Winston, 1976. Chapters 2, 8‐17.

3. Michael P Marder, Condensed Matter Physics, 2nded.; John Wiley and Sons, 2010.

Additional References:

1. Brian Tanner, Introduction to the Physics of Electrons in Solids, CUP, 1995.

2. M A Wahab, Solid State Physics , Narosa, 2005.

3. G Grosso and G Paravicini, Solid State Physics , Academic Press, 2000.

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET304: Surfaces and Thin Films (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:‐ Physics of Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin films

Mechanism of thin film formation: Condensation and nucleation, growth and

coalescence of islands, Crystallographic structure of films, factors affecting structure and

properties of thin films; Properties of thin films:‐ Transport and optical properties of

metallic, semiconductin g and dielectric films; Application of thin films.

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Unit II: Thin films : Formation & Measurement

Vacuum Techniques: Review - Production of low pressures; Measurement of pressure,

Leak detections, Materials used

Preparation of Thin Films: Thermal evaporation , Cathode Sputtering, Chemical

Deposition, Laser Ablation, LangmurBlochet Films

Thickness Measurements: Stylus Method, Electrical Method, Quartz Crystal Method,

Optical Methods, mass measurements (microbalance)

Unit III: Nano Science and Nano Technology

Band structure and Density of States at Nanoscale, Quantum mechanics for

nanoscience‐ size effects, application of Schrodinger eqution, quantum

confinement.Growth techniques for nano materials‐ Top down, Bottom up technique.

Nano technology applications‐ n ano structures of Carbon, BN nanotubes,

Nanoelectronics, nanobiometrics

Unit IV: Surface Analytical Techniques

X‐ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron spectroscopy(AES), Depth

profiling by Ar ions, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), Sec ondary Ion Mass

spectroscopy (SIMS), Rutherford Backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Transmission

Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with EDAX, Scanning

Probe Microscopy – a) Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) , and b) Atomic Forc e

Microscopy (AFM)

References:

Unit I:

1. K.L. Chopra “ Thin Film Phenomenan” McGraw Hill Inc (1969)

2. LudmilaEckertova “ Physics of Thin Films” Plenum Press NY (1986)

Unit II:

1. A. Roth “Vacuum Technology” North Holland Amsterdam

2. LudmilaEckertova “ Physics of Thin Films” Plenum Press NY (1986)

3. Thin Film Phenomena LK Chopra McGraw Hill 1969

Unit III: ‐

1. “Introduction to NanoScience and Nanotechnology” K.K. Chattopadhyay

and A.N. Banerjee PHI learning (2009)

2. “Nanotechnology‐ Principles and Practices “ S.K. Kulkarn i, Capital publishing 2007

## Page 20

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Unit IV: ‐

1. “Surface and Thin Film Analysis” ed H. Bubert and H. Jennet, Wiley –VCH (2003)

2. “Fundamentals of Surface and Thin Film Analysis” L.C. Feldman and J.W. Mayer

North Holland amsterdam (1986)

3. “Surface Analytical Methods” D .J. O’Conner, B.A. Sexton and R. St. C. Smart (ed)

Springer Verlag (1991)

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET305 : 8, 16 – bit Microprocessors, Microcontroller and PIC

Microcontrollers (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit -I:

8085 Interrupts : The 8085 Interrupt, 8085 Vectored Interrupts, Restart as Software

Instructions, Additional I/O Concepts and Processes.

RSG - Ch 12: 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4

Programmable Peripheral and Interface Devices : The 8255A Programmable Peripheral

Interface,Interfacing Keyboard and Seven Segment Display , the8259A Programmable

Interrupt Controller, Direct Memory Access (DMA) and 8237 DMA Controller, the 8279

Programmable Keyboard/Display Interface

RSG - Ch 15: 15.1, 15.2, 15.5, 15.6 &Ch 14: only 14.3

Serial I/O and Data Communication : Basic Concepts in Serial I/O, Software Controlled

Asynchronous Serial I/O, The 8085 Serial I/O lines: SOD and SID

RSG - Ch 16: 16.1, 16.2, 16.3,

Ref. RSG: - Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with the 8085

by Ramesh S . Gaonkar, Fifth Edition Penram International Publication

(India) Pvt Ltd

Unit -II:

8086 microprocessor:

Register organization of 8086, Architecture, Signal Descriptions of 8086, Physical

Memory Organization, Gen eral Bus operation, I/O Addressing Capability, Special

Processor Activities, Minimum mode 8086 system and timings, Maximum mode of 8086

system and timings.

AB - Ch 1: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 .

8086 Instruction set and assembler directives:

Machine Language Instructions Formats, Addressing modes of 8086, Instruction set of

8086.

AB - Ch 2: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.

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The Art of Assembly Language Programming with 8086:

A few machine level programs, Machine coding the programs, Programming with an

assembler (only using Debug), Assembly language example programs.

AB - Ch 3: 3.1, 3.2, 3.3.4 & 3.4

Special architectural features and related programming:

Introduction to Stack, Stack structure of 8086, Interrupts and Interrupt Service Routines,

Inter rupt cycle of 8086, Non -maskable interrupt, Maskable interrupt (INTR).

AB - Ch 4: 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6

Ref. AB: - Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals by a K Ray and K M Bhurchandi

Second Edition Tata McGraw –Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

(Note: Also refer Intel’s 8086 Data Sheet)

Unit -III:

8051 microcontroller: (Review of 8051), Timer/Counters, Interrupts, Serial

communication

Programming 8051 Timers, Counter Programming

MMM - Ch 9: 9.1, 9.2

Basics of Serial Communication, 8051 Connection to RS232, 8051 Serial Port

Programming in assembly.

MMM - Ch 10: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3

8051 Interrupts, Programming Timer Interrupts, Programming External hardware

Interrupts, Programming the Serial Communication Interrupt, Interrupt Priority in

8051/52.

MMM - Ch 11: 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5

Ref. MMM: - The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems by M.A. Mazidi, J.G.

Mazidi and R.D. Mckinlay, Second Edition, Pearson

Unit -IV:

16C61/71 PIC Microcontrollers: Overview and Features, PIC 16C6X/7X, PIC Reset

Actions, PIC Oscillator Connections, PIC Memory Organization, PIC 16C6X/7X

Instructions, Addressing Modes, I/O Ports, Interrupts in PIC 16C61/71, PIC

16C61/71Timers, PIC 16C71 Analog -to-Digital Converter.

AVD – Ch 9: 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11

Ref. AVD: - Microcontrollers by Ajay V. Deshmukh, Tata -Mcgraw Hill Publication

Additional Reference books:

1. Microprocessors and interfacing, programming and hardware, By Douglas V. Hall

(TMH)

2. The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems -Dr. Rajiv Kapadia (JaicoPub.House)

3. 8086 Microprocessor: Programming and Interfacing K.J.Ayala, Penram International

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4. 8051 Micro -controller, K.J.Ayala., Penram Internationa l.

5. Design with PIC microcontrollers by John B. Peatman, Pearson Education Asia.

6. Programming & customizing the 8051 microcontroller By MykePredko, TMH.

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET306: Programming Using C++, VC++, Embedded Systems and RTOS

(60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit -I:

Programming Using C++: Introduction to Computers and programming , Introduction to

C++, Expressions and interactivity , Making decisions, Looping , Functions , Arrays ,

Sorting arrays , Pointers

TG – Ch 1: 1.3 to 1.7

Ch 2: 2.1 to 2.14

Ch 3: 3.1 to 3.11

Ch 4: 4.1 to 4.15

Ch 5: 5.1 to 5.13

Ch 6: 6.1 to 6.14

Ch 7: 7.1 to 7.9

Ch 8: 8.3

Ch 9: 9.1 to 9.7

Ref. TG: - Starting out with C++ from Control structures through objects, by Tony

Gaddis, Sixth edition, Penram International Publications, India

Unit -II:

Introduction to classes: More about classes, Inheritance, polymorphism, virtual

functions.

TG – Ch 13: 13.1 to 13.11

Ch 14: 14.1 to 14.5

Ch 15: 15.1 to 15.6

Introduction to VC++

YK – Ch 1, 2, 3

Ref. TG: - Starting out with C++ from Control structures through objects, by Tony

Gaddis, Sixth edition Penram International Publications, India

YK: - Introduction to Visual C++ by YashwantKanetkar

Unit -III:Embedded systems

Introduction to Embedded Systems : What is an embedded system, Embedded System

v/s General Computing System, Classification of Embedded Systems, Major Application

Areas of Embedded Systems, Purpose of Embedded Systems, Smart Running Shoes.

SKV – Ch 1: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7

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A Typical Embedded system : Core of the embedded system

SKV – Ch 2: 2.1

Characteristics and quality Attributed of Embedded Systems: Characteristics of an

Embedded System, Quality Attributes of Embedded Systems

SKV – Ch 3: 3.1, 3.2

Embedded Systems -Applica tion and Domain –Specific: Washing Machine, Automatic -

Domain Specific examples of embedded system

SKV – Ch 4: 4.1, 4.2

Design Process and design Examples : Automatic Chocolate Vending machine (ACVM),

Smart Card, Digital Camera, Mobile Phone, A Set of Robots

RK - Ch 1: 1.10.2, 1.10.3, 1.10.4, 1.10.5, 1.10.6, 1.10.7

Ref. SKV: - Introduction to embedded systems, by Shibu K. V. ,Sixth Reprint 2012, Tata

McGraw Hill

Ref. RK: -“Embedded Systems” Architecture, Programming and Design, by Raj Kamal,

Second Editio n,The McGraw -Hill Companies

Unit -IV: - Real –Time Operating System based Embedded System Design:

Operating system Basics, Types of Operating Systems, Tasks, Process and Threads,

Multi -processing and Multitasking, Task Scheduling, Threads, Processes and Sc heduling:

Putting them altogether, task Communication, task Synchronizations, Device Drivers,

How to choose an RTOS.

SKV: Ch – 10: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9. 10.10

Ref: SKV : - Introduction to embedded systems, by Shibu K. V. ,Sixth Reprint 2012, Tata

Mcgraw Hill

Additional references:

1. Object Oriented Programming with C++, By E. Balagurusamy, 2nd ed. TMH.

2. OOPS with C++ from the Foundation, By N. R. Parsa, Dream Tech Press India Ltd.

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET307: Signal Modulation and Transmission Techniques, (60 lectures,

4 credits)

Unit I:

Single Sideband Techniques :Evolution and description of SSB, Suppression of

carrier,Suppression of unwanted sideband, Extensions of SSB, Frequency Modulation:

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Theory of frequency and phase modulation, Noise and frequency modulation,

Generation of frequency modulation. Radio Receivers: Receiver types, AM receivers,

Communication receivers, FM receivers, Single‐ sideband receivers,

Independent‐sideband receivers.

Unit II :

Transmission Line Theory: Fundamental of transmission lines, Different types of

transmissionlines; Telephone lines and cables, Radio frequency lines, Micro strip

transmission lines. Definition of characteristics impedance, Losses in transmission li nes,

Standing waves, Quarter and Half wavelength lines, Reactance properties of

transmission lines, Fundamental of the Smith charts and its applications.

Unit III :

Electromagnetic Radiation and Propagation of Waves: Fundamental of

electromagneticwaves, Effects of the environment, Propagation of waves; Ground

waves, Sky wave propagation, Space waves, Tropospheric scatter propagation,

Extraterrestrial communication

Unit IV:

Antennas: Basic considerations, Wire radiators in space, Terms and definitions, Eff ects

ofground on antennas, Antenna Coupling at medium frequencies, Directional high

frequency antennas, UHF and Microwave antennas, Wideband and special purpose

antennas

Main References:

[1] Electronic Communication Systems by George Kennedy and Bernard Davis, 4th ed.,

Tata McGraw‐Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.

[2] Electronic Communication Systems‐ Fundamentals through Advanced by Wayne

Tomasi; 4th Edition, Pearson education Singapore.

Additional References:

[1] Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy & John Coolen, (4th ed., Pearson Ed.)

[2] Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller, (6th ed., Prentice Hall

International Inc.)

## Page 25

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Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET308: Microwave Electronics, Radar and Optical Fiber

Communication, (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I :

Waveguides, Resonators and Components: Rectangular waveguides, Circular and other

waveguides, Waveguide coupling, matching and attenuation, Cavity resonators,

Auxiliary components.

Unit II:

Microwave Tubes and Circuits :Microwav e triodes, Multicavity Klystron, Reflex

Klystron,Magnetron, Traveling wave tube.

Microwave Semiconductor Devices and Circuits: Passive microwave circuits, Transistors

andintegrated circuits, parametric amplifiers, Tunnel Diodes and Negative Resistance

Ampli fier, Gunn effect and diodes, Avalanche effects and diodes. PIN Diode, Schottky

barrier diode, backward diode.

Microwave Measurements: Slotted line VSWR measurement‐Impedance

measurement,insertion loss and attenuation measurements

Unit III:

Radar Systems : Basic principles; Fundamentals, Radar performance factors Pulsed

systems;Basic pulsed radar system, Antennas and scanning, Display methods, Pulsed

radar systems, Moving radar systems. Moving target indication, Radar beacons, CW

Doppler radar, Frequency mod ulated CW radar, Phased array radars, Planar array

radars.

Unit IV:

Optical Fiber Communication Systems: Introduction to optical fibers, signal degradation

inoptical fibers, Fiber optical sources and coupling, Fiber optical receivers, System

parameters, An alog optical fiber communication links, Design procedure, Multichannel

analog systems, FM/FDM video signal transmission, Digital optical fiber systems.

Main References:

1. Electronic communication systems by George Kennedy and Bernard Davis, 4th ed.,

Tata McGraw‐Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.

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2. Optical Fiber Communication by Gerd Keiser; McGraw‐Hill International, Singapore,

3rdEd;2000

3. Tomasi; 4th Edition, Pearson education

4. Electronic Communication Systems Fundamentals through Advanced by Wayne n

Singapore.

Additional References:

1. Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy and John Coolen, (4th ed.,

Pearson Education).

2. Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller, (6th ed., Prentice

Hall International, Inc.).

3. Digital Communications Systems by Harold Kolimbiris, (Pearson Education Asia).

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET309: Semiconductors Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

(N.B.: Problems form an integral part of the course)

Unit I: Transport Properties of Semiconductors:

The Boltzmann transport equation and its solutions for (i) Electric field alone (ii)

Electric and Magnetic fields together. Hall Effect and Magneto resistance (van der

Ziel). Scattering mechanism and Relaxation time concept, Transport in hi gh electric

fields, hot electrons (Wang), transferred electron effects (Smith). Transport in

2‐Dimentionalquantum well ‐ (a) High field effects (i) Landau levels, (ii) Shubnikov de

Hass effect, (iii) Quantum Hall effect (b) Perpendicular transport ‐ Resona nt Tunneling

(JS‐ Art.17.3, 17.6, 17.7, 14.9).

Unit II: Optical Properties of Semiconductors:

Optical properties of Semiconductors: Fundamental absorption, Exciton absorption,

Impurity absorption, Free carrier absorption. Radiative

recombination.Photocondu ctivity.Surface recombination (Smith). Optical processes in

quantum wells: Interband transitions in quantum wells, Intraband transitions (JS‐

Art.15.7.2, 15.10)

Unit III: Amorphous & Organic Semiconductors:

Electronic density of states, localization, Trans port properties, Optical properties,

Hydrogenization of amorphous silicon, Si:H fields effect transistors‐design, fabrication

and characteristics. Organic semiconductors, Polymers.

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Unit IV: Advanced Electronic Materials:

Photovoltaics Fundamentals & Mater ials, Spintronics materials, Dilute magnetic

semiconductors, Magnetites, Giant‐magneto resistance. Composites, Glasses,

Ceramics, Liquid crystals, Quasicrystals.

Main References:

1. Aldert van der Ziel, Solid State Physical Electronics, 2nd edition, Prentice‐Hall,

New Delhi, 1971.

2. S.Y. Wang, Introduction to Solid State Electronics, North Holland, 1980,

3. R.A. Smith, Semiconductors, 2nd edition; Cambridge University Press, London,

1978.

4. Jasprit Singh, Physics of Semiconductors and their Heteros tructures,

McGraw‐Hill, New York, 1993.

5. M.H. Brodsky (ed), Topics in Applied Physics Vol.36, Amorphous

Semiconductors,

6. S.R. Elliott, Physics of Amorphous Materials, Longman, London, 1983.

7. C.S. Solanki, Solar Photovoltaics‐Fundamentals, Technologies and App lications,

PHI LPL, New Delhi, 2009.

Additional References:

1. J.I. Pankove, Optical processes in semiconductors,

2. J. Singh, Semiconductors, Optoelectronics, Mc‐Graw Hill,

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET310: Thin Film Physics & Technology (60 lectures, 4 credits)

(N.B.: Problems form an integral part of the course)

Unit I: Thin films preparation &Thickness measurement

Methods of Preparation/synthesis of Thin films: Vacuum evaporation, Cathode

sputtering, Anodic oxidation, Plasma anodization , Chemical vapour

deposition(CVD), Ion‐assisted deposition(IAD), Laser ablation, Longmuir Blochet

film, Sol‐gel film deposition. Thickness measurements: Resistance, capacitance,

microbalance, Quartz crystal thickness monitor,Optical absorption, Multiple

beam interference, Interference colour, Ellipsometry methods.

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Unit II: Thin film Physics

Mechanism of thin film formation: Formation stages of thin films, Condensation

and nucleation, Thermodynamic theory of nucleation, Growth and coalescence of

islands, Influence of various factors on final structure of thin films,

Crystallographic structure of thin films. Properties of thin films: Conductivity of

metal films, Electrical properties of semiconductor thin films, Transport in

dielectric thin films, Dielectri c properties of thin films, Optical properties of thin

films. Thin films of high temperature superconductors, Diamond like carbon thin

films.

Unit III: Thin films for Devices & other Applications:

Dielectric deposition‐ silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, si licon oxynitride, polysilicon

deposition, metallization, electromigration, silicides. Thin film transistors, thin

film multilayers, optical filters, mirrors, sensors and detectors.

Unit IV: Characterization/Analysis of materials and devices:

X‐ray diffract ion(XRD), Electron diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy

(TEM), Scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Energy dispersive analysis of X‐rays

(EDAX), Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), UV‐VIS spectroscopy, Fourier

transform infrared (FTIR) spectrosc opy, Raman spectroscopy, Electron spin

resonance (ESR), X‐ray fluorescence (XRF), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES),

X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM),

Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ion beam analysis techniques: R utherford

backscattering (RBS), Channeling, Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA),

Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS).

Main References:

1. LudmilaEckertova, Physics of thin films, 2nd Revised edition, Plenum Press, New

York, 1986 (Reprinted 1990),

2. K.L. Chopra, Thin film phenomena, Mc‐Graw Hill, New York, 1969.

3. L. C. Feldman and J.W. Mayer, Fundamentals of surface and Thin Films Analysis,

North Holland, Amsterdam, 1986.

4. S.M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices‐Physics and Technology, John Wiley,1985.

Additional R eferences:

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1. R.W. Berry, P.M.Hall and M.T. Harris, Thin film technology, Van Nostrand, New

Jersey, 1970, K.L.Chopra and LK.Malhotra (ed),

2. Thin Film Technology and Applications, T.M.H. Publishing Co., New Delhi (1984).

Semester‐III: Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET311:Fundamentals of Material Science ( 60Letures 4 credits)

Unit I:

Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering, Types of Materials, Competition

amongMaterials, Future trends In Materials Usage, Atomic Structure and Bonding,

Types of Atomicand Molecular Bonds, Ionic Bonding, Covalent Bonding, Metallic

Bonding, Secondary Bonding,Mixed Bonding, Crystal Structures and Crystal

Geometry, The Space Lattice and Unit Cells,Crystal Systems and Bravais Lattices,

Principal Metallic Crystal Struct ures, Atom Positions inCubic Unit Cells, Directions in

Cubic Unit Cells, Miller Indices For Crystallographic Planes InCubic Unit Cells,

Crystallographic Planes and Directions In Hexagonal Unit Cells, Comparison ofFCC,

HCP, and BCC Crystal Structures, Volum e, Planar, and Linear Density Unit Cell

Calculations,Polymorphism or Allotropy, Crystal Structure Analysis

Unit II:

Solidification, Crystalline Imperfections, and Diffusion In Solids, Solidification of

Metals,Solidification of Single Crystals, Metallic So lid Solutions, Crystalline

Imperfections, RateProcesses In Solids, Atomic Diffusion In Solids, Industrial

Applications of Diffusion Processes,Effect of Temperature on Diffusion in Solids.

Unit III:

Mechanical Properties of Metals, The Processing of Metals and Alloys, Stress and

Strain InMetals, The Tensile Test and The Engineering Stress‐Strain Diagram,

Hardness and HardnessTesting, Plastic Deformation of Metal Single Crystals, Plastic

Deformation of PolycrystallineMetals, Solid‐Solution Strengthening of M etals,

Recovery and Recrystallization of PlasticallyDeformed. Metals, Fracture of Metals,

Fatigue of Metals, Creep and Stress Rupture of Metals.

Unit IV:

Phase Diagrams, Phase Diagrams of Pure Substances, Gibbs Phase Rule, Binary

IsomorphousAlloy Systems, The Lever Rule, Nonequilibrium Solidification of Alloys,

Binary Eutectic AlloySystems, Binary Peritectic Alloy Systems, Binary

## Page 30

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MonotecticSystems, Invariant Reactions, PhaseDiagrams With Intermediate Phases

and Compounds, Ternary Phase Diagrams.

Reference :

1. William F Smith, JavadHashemi, Ravi Prakash, Materials Science and Engineering,

Tata‐McGraw Hill, 4th Edition.

2. William D. Callister, Materials Science and EngineeringAn Introduction, John

Wiley & Sons, Inc ., 7th Edition.

Semester‐ III: Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET312: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Metal nanoclusters: Magic numbers, Theoretical Modeling of nanoparticles,

Geometric

Structure, Electronic Structure, Reactivity, Fluctuations, Magnetic clusters,

Bulk‐to‐Nanotransition; Semiconducting nanoparticles: Optical properties,

Photofragmentation, CoulombExplosion; Rare‐gas and molecular clusters: Inert gas

clusters, Superfluid clusters, Molecularclusters, Nanosized Organic crystals; Methods

of synthesis: R F plasma, Chemical methods,Thermolysis, Pulsed‐Laser method,

Synthesis of nanosized organic crystals;

Cohesive Energy : Ionic solids, Defects in Ionic solids, Covalently bonded solids,

Organic crystals,Inert‐gas solids, Metals, Conclusion.

Quantum wells, wi res and dots : Fabricating Quantum Nanostructures: Solution

fabrication,Lithography; Size and dimensionality effects: Size effects, Size effects on

conduction electrons,Conduction electrons and dimensionality, Fermi gas and density

of states, Potential well s,Partial confinement, Properties dependent on density of

states; Excitons, Single electronTunneling; Applications: Infrared detectors, Quantum

dot lasers.

(Owens and Poole: Chapter 3, 6 and 9)

Unit II:

Vibrational Properties : The finite One‐dimensional m onoatomic lattice, Ionic solids,

Experimental Observations: Optical and acoustical modes; Vibrational spectroscopy

of surfacelayers of nanoparticles – Raman spectroscopy of surface layers, Infrared

Spectroscopy ofsurface layers; Photon confinement, Effect of dimension on lattice

vibrations, Effect ofdimension on vibrational density of states, effect of size on Debye

## Page 31

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frequency, Meltingtemperature, Specific heat, Plasmons, Surface‐enhanced Raman

Spectroscopy, Phasetransitions.

Electronic Properties : Ionic sol ids, Covalently bonded solids; Metals: Effect of lattice

parameteron electronic structure, Free electron model, The Tight‐Binding model;

Measurements ofelectronic structure of nanoparticles: Semiconducting

nanoparticles, Organic solids, Metals.

Carbon nano structures : Introduction; Carbon molecules: Nature of the carbon bond,

NewCarbon structures; Carbon clusters: Small Carbon clusters, Buckyball, The

structure of molecularC60, Crystalline C60, Larger and smaller Buckyballs, Buckyballs

of other atoms; Carbon nanotubes: Fabrication, Structure, Electronic properties,

Vibrational properties,Functionalization, Doped Carbon Nanotubes, Mechanical

properties; Nanotube Composites:Polymer‐carbon nanotube composites,

Metal‐Carbon nanotube composites; Graphenenanostructu res.

(Owens and Poole: Chapter 7, 8 and 10)

Unit III:

Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials : Stress‐Strain Behavior of

materials;Failure Mechanism of Conventional Grain‐Sized Materials; Mechanical

Properties ofConsolidated Nano‐Grained Materia ls; Nanostructured Multilayers;

Mechanical and DynamicalProperties of NanosizedDevices : General considerations,

Nanopendulum, Vibrations of aNanometer String, The Nanospring, The Clamped

Beam, The challenges and Possibilities ofNanomechanical sensors, Met hods of

Fabrication of Nanosized Devices.

Magnetism in Nanostructures: Basics of Ferromagnetism; Behavior of Powders of

Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles : Properties of a single Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles,

Dynamic ofIndividual Magnetic Nanoparticles, Measuremen ts of

Superparamagnetism and the BlockingTemperature, Nanopore Containment of

Magnetic Particles; Ferrofluids; Bulk nanostructuredMagnetic Materials: Effect of

nanosized grain structure on magnetic properties,Magnetoresisitive materials,

Carbon nanostructu red ferromagnets; Antiferromagneticnanoparticles.

Nanoelectronics: N and P doping and PN junctions, MOSFET, Scaling of MOSFETs;

Spintronics: Definition and examples of spintronic devices, Magnetic storage and spin

valves, Dilutemagnetic semiconductors; Mole cular switches and electronics:

Molecular switches, Molecularelectronics, Mechanism of conduction through a

molecule; Photonic crystals.

(Owens and Poole: Chapter 12, 13 and 14)

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Unit IV:

An introduction to nanochemistry concepts : Nanochemistry introductio n, Surface,

Size, Shape,Self‐assembly, Defects, The bio‐nano interface, Safety.

Gold: Introduction, Surface, Size, Shape, Self‐assembly, Defects, Bio‐nano,

Gold‐Nanofood forthought.

Cadmium Selenide : Introduction, Surface, Size, Shape, Self‐assembly, Defec ts,

Bio‐nano, CdSe‐Nanofood for thought.

Iron Oxide : Introduction, Surface, Size, Shape, Self‐assembly, Bio‐nano, Iron

Oxide‐Nanofoodfor thought.

Carbon : Introduction, Surface, Size, Shape, Self‐assembly, Bio‐nano, Conclusion,

Carbon‐

Nanofood for thought.

(Cademartiri and Ozin: Chapter 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7)

References:

1. The Physics and Chemistry of Nanosolids, Frank J. Owens and Charles P. Poole,

Wiley‐Interscience, 2008.

2. Concepts of Nanochemistry, LudovicoCademartiri and Geoffrey A. Ozin,

Wiley‐VCH,2009.

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET313: Galactic and Extra‐Galactic Astronomy (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Galactic Astronomy: Galactic structure: Nucleus, Bulge, Disk and Corona Morphology

ofGalaxies: Dwarfs, Ellipticals, Spirals and Irregulars Rotation Curves: Dark Matter

Interstellar Medium and Molecular Complexes: Star formation. Metal Content, Initial

Mass Function. Distribution and dynamics of Stars Stellar groups: Galactic and

Globular clusters and their ages. Spiral arms and mag netic fields Dynamical and

chemical evolution of galaxies: Interactions and mergers.

Unit II:

Extragalactic Astronomy: Classification of Galaxies: Hubble sequence. Groups

andClusters of Galaxies: Missing mass (M/L) Intergalactic Medium: Diffuse Radiation

and Magnetic Fields. Optical and X‐ray observations: Cooling flows,

Sunyaev‐Zeldovich effect. Superclusters, Filaments, Voids, Walls Radio Sources.

Faraday Rotation. Active Galactic Nuclei.Seyferts, BL Lacs and Quasars: Unified

Models Gravitational Lenses.

Unit III:

## Page 33

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Introduction to General Theory of Relativity :Einstein's field eqns. (qualitative) FRW

metric.

Unit IV:

Cosmology :Hubble law for Expanding Universe Age & distance scale in cosmology.

Cosmological Parameters. Early Universe: Thermal history & Nucleosynthesis of light

elements. Structure formation, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation:

Observations & Inferences.

Main Texts / References:

1. A. Unsold and B Beschek., The New Cosmos, 4th ed.; Springer Verlag 1991.

2. P.V. Ramanmurthy and A.W. Wolfendale , Gamma Ray Astronomy; CUP, 1986.

3. J.V. Narlikar, Introduction to Cosmology; CUP, 1993.

4. G.B. Rybicki& A.P. Lightman, Radiative Processes in Astrophysics; Wiley Intl. 1979.

5. 5.P.J.E. Peebles, Principles of Physical Cosmology; Princeton University Press,

1993.

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET314: Plasma Physics, (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Definition of Plasma, occurrence of plasma, Debye shielding, plasma parameters,

criterion for plasma, (FC, JB, KT)

Single particle motion in uniform E and B fields, time varying E field, time varying B

field, magnetic mirrors, Adiabatic invariants (FC, JB)

Transport phenomenon, Binary Coulomb collision, multiple Coulomb collisions,

Lorentz model of weakly ionized plasma, Diffusion and mobility in weakl y ionized

gases, collision and diffusion parameters, ambipolar diffusion, diffusion in slab,

steady state solutions, recombination, plasma resistivity. Bohm diffusion. (FC, KT)

Unit II:

Plasma Kinetic Theory and Vlasov equation: Introduction to plasma kinetic theory,

zeroth orderequations Vlasov equation. Equilibrium solutions electrostatic waves,

Landau contour, landau damping. Wave energy.Physics of Landau damping, Nyquist

method and Penrose criteria, plasma heating in laboratory devices. Stability th eory,

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two stream instability, fire hose instability, flute instability, mirror instability. Rayleigh

Taylor instability.Ionospheric irregularities. (DN, KT, JB)

Unit III:

Langmuir waves, dielectric function, electromagnetic waves. Upper hybrid waves,

elect rostatic ion waves. Electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas,

electromagnetic waves along Bo Alfven waves, fast magneto sonic waves. Drift waves

magnetosphere of the Earth. (DN, CF)

Derivation of fluid equations from the Vlasov equation, Single fluid eq uation,

Introduction to MHD equilibrium.MHD stability, Resistive diffusion. Alfven waves,

magneto acoustic waves, electromagnetic waves. (DN, JB, KT )

Unit IV:

Plasma production and diagnostics: Various plasma production techniques, Electrical

breakdown in gases using dc. rf, microwave and high frequency fields Glow and arc

discharge. (IH, JR)

Plasma diagnostics, electrostatic probe, Magnetic probes, spectroscopic diagnostics,

active and passive techniques, interferometry techniques. (IH)

Low temperature pl asma applications: plasma processing of materials: Physics of high

and low pressure plasma sours and applications to materials processing. Brief review

of plasma etching, PECVD, display, radiation sources, plasma source ion implantation.

Plasma cutting, me lting, spraying and waste processing.Applications to nuclear, space

and semiconductor industries. (IH)

High temperature plasma applications, controlled thermonuclear fusion, Introduction

to thermonuclear fusion, fusion reactions, cross sections, radiative processes in

plasmas, energy loss, Lawson criterion, break even and ignition, magnetic and inertial

confinement scheme and devices, emission of X rays and neutrons, fusion plasma

diagnostics. (DM, ST)

Main References:

1. Francis F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Volume 1

Springer (FC)

2. J. A. Bittencourt, Fundamentals of Plasma Physics, Springer, 3rd edition (JB)

3. N. A. Krall and A.W. Trivelpiece, Principles of plasma physics, Mc GrawHill (KT)

4. I R. Hutchinson, Principles of plasma Diagnostics, Cambridge university Press, 2nd

edition (IH)

5. D. Nicholson, Introduction to plasma theory, Wiley, (DN)

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6. J Reece Roth, Industrial Plasma Engineering, IOP Publications. 2000 (JR)

7. Inertial Confinement fusion, J.J. Dudesrstadt and G.A. Mosses, WiIe y (1982) (DM)

8. Fusion An introduction to the Physics and Technology of Magnetic Confinement

Fusion, W. M. Stacy, Wiley (1984) (ST)

Additional References:

1. An introduction to plasma Physics. R. R. Goldston& P. H Rutherford

2. Plasma Physics ‐ An introduction. R. Dendy,

3. The physics of lasers plasma & interactions. W. L. Kruer, Addison‐Wesley, 1988

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET315: Group Theory (60 lectures, 4 credits)

UNIT I: FINITE GROUPS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIONS (12 LECTURES + 3

TUTORIALS)

1. Finite Groups

Group axioms, Finite groups of low order, Cyclic Groups, Permutation Groups ,

Basic Concepts‐ Conjugation, Normal Subgroups, Quotient Group, Simple Groups,

Semi‐ direct product, Young Tableaux

2. Group Representations

Introducti on, Reducible and Irreducible Representations, Schur’s Lemmas, Great

Orthogonality Theorem, Character Tables, Examples.

UNIT II: LIE GROUPS (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. Lie Groups and Lie Algebras

Introduction to Lie groups and Lie algebras‐ Roots and Weights, Lie Algebras

of matrix Lie groups

2. Representation Theory for Lie Groups/Algebras

Representations of Lie groups and Lie Algebras, Adjoint representation,

Representations of disconnected Lie groups, Direct product of representations

of a Lie Group, The groups O(3) and SO(3) as examples.

UNIT III: GROUP THEORY APPLICATIONS IN NON‐RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM

MECHANICS (11 LECTURES + 4TUTORIALS)

1. Rotation Group and Angular Momentum

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Angular Momentum algebra, Addition of angular momenta uncoupled and

coupled rep resentation. Clebsch – Gordon coefficients and their simple

properties(For revisionpurpose only). Spin ½, Matrix Representations ,The

rotation operators and rotation matrices, spin angular momentum and its

wavefunction, Representations of the rotation group , irreducible tensor

operators, The Wigner – Eckart theorem,

2. Applications in Solid State Physics

Point and Space Groups, Stereographic projections of simple crystallographic

point groups, Crystal field splittings of atomic energy levels.

UNIT IV: GROUP THEORY APPLICATIONS IN RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS

(11 LECTURES + 4TUTORIALS)

1. Lorentz Group and its Representations

Space –time symmetries, Lorentz and Poincare group, Conformal group.

2. Unitary Groups and Unitary Symmetries

SU(2) and Isospin, SU(3), Gell Mann matrices, Weights and roots of SU(3),

Fundamental representations of SU(3).

Suggested reading:

1. Group theory , and its applications to Physical Problems , by M.

Hamermesh(Addison‐Wesley, 1962)

2. Lie Algebras in Particle Physics , by Howard Georgi (Westview, 1995)

3. Group theory :A Physicist’s Survey, by Pierre Ramond (Cambridge University

Press, 2010)

4. Elements of Group Theory for Physicists , by A.W.Joshi (New Age International,

1997)

5. Group Theory in Physics , by W.K.Tung (World Scientific 1989)

Semester‐III: Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET316: Applied Thermodynamics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I

First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy, enthalpy, specific heats, and first law applied to

systems andcontrol volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin‐Planck and Clausius statements, reversible

andirreversible processes, Carnot theorems, thermodynamic temperature scale,

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Clausiusinequality and concept of entropy, principle of increase of entropy; availability

and irrev ersibility.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: concept of temperature, Overview of techniques in low

temperature production

Unit II

Properties of Pure Substances: Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid,

liquidand vapor phases, P‐V‐T behaviour of s imple compressible substances, phase rule,

thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, equations of state,

compressibility chart. Thermodynamic Relations: T‐ds relations, Maxwell

equations,Liquefaction of gases: Joule‐Thomson effect, Jo ule‐Thomson coefficient,

coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron

equation.

Unit III

Equilibrium Concept in Thermodynamics Unary, binary and multicomponent systems,

phaseequilibria, evolution of phase diagrams, metastable phase diagrams, calculation of

phase diagrams, thermodynamics of defects. Solution models

Some Thermodynamic cycles: Carnot vapour power cycle, Ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine

Reheat cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle,

Unit IV

Thermodynamics of Phase transformation and Heterogeneous Systems:

Melting and solidification, precipitation, eutectoid, massive, spinodal, martensitic, order

disorder transformations and glass transition. First and second order

transitions.Equilibrium Constants and Ellingham dia grams

References:

1. M. Modell and R.C. Reid, Thermodynamics and its Applications, Prentice‐Hall,

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1983.

2. H.B. Callen, Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatics, Jonh Wiley &

Sons, New York, 1985.

3. R.T. DeHoff, Thermodynam ics in Materials Science, McGraw‐Hill, Singapore,

4. Physical Chemistry of Metals: L.S. Darken and R.W. Gurry

5. Thermodynamics of Solids: R.A. Swalin

6. Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys: D.A. Porter and K.E. Easterling

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7. Principles of Extractive Metallurgy : H.S. Ray

Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET317: Quantum Field Theory, (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Relativistic Wave Equations a nd Classical Fields (12 Lectures + 3 Tutorials)

1. Klein Gordon equation , Relativistic energy‐momentum relation, Klein‐Gordon

equation, solutions of the equation, probability conservation problem, relation with

negative energy states.

2. Dirac equation

Dirac equation, algebra of matrices, conservation of probability, solutions of Dirac

equation, helicity and c hirality, Lorentz covariance, bilinear covariants, trace

relations and similar identities.

3. Dynamics of a solid

The linear atomic chain as a system of coupled oscillators, periodic boundary

conditions, normal modes, continuum limit, Lagrangian and Hamiltoni an density,

Euler‐Lagrange equations for fields, extension to two and three dimensions, velocity

of sound.

4. Free fields

Lagrangian formulation for the Schrödinger, Dirac and Klein‐Gordon fields, Nöther’s

theorem, global gauge symmetries and associated Nöthe r currents.

Unit II : Canonical Quantisation Of Free Fields (11 Lectures + 4 Tutorials)

1. Quantisation of solids

Quantisation of the linear chain, creation and annihilation operators, phonons,

occupation number representation, extension to two and three dimen sions,

polarisation vectors.

2. Quantisation of the Schrödinger field

Expansion of the Schrödinger field in terms of eigenstates of the single particle wave

equation, creation and annihilation operators, number operator, occupation number

representation, Slat er determinant.

3. Quantisation of Relativistic fields

Quantisation of the scalar field, positive and negative energy solutions, expansion in

terms of creation and annihilation operators, antiparticles, eigenvalues of energy and

charge.

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Quantisation of the Dirac field along same lines as quantisation of the scalar

field.Quantisation of the electromagnetic field using Hamiltonian method, gauge

invariance, modification of the commutation relation.

UNIT III: Interacting Fields and Feynman Diagrams (11 Lectures + 4 Tutorials)

1. Dyson formulation for scattering:

S matrix , Interaction picture, time evolution operator, Dyson expansion and S

matrix, transition matrix, relation to Fermi’s golden rule.

2. Wick expansion and contractions

Normal‐ordered product, time‐ordered product and contractions, Wick’s theorem

for the Schrödinger, Dirac and Klein‐Gordon fields,

3. Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules ,

Diagrammatic representation, tree and loop diagrams, Feynman rules from the Wick

expansion.

UNIT IV: QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. The QED Lagrangian

Structure of the QED Lagrangian, gauge invariance and conserved current, Feynman

rules for QED, scalar electrodynamics.

2. Basic Processes in QED

Feynman diagram calculation for , phase space integration, Moller

and Bhabha Scattering, polarisation vectors, Compton scattering and pair

creation/annihilation, Klein‐Nishina formula.

3. Loops and Renormalisation in QED

Loop diagrams: bubble, triangle and box, Ward identity for QED, UV and IR

divergences, cutoff regularisation, on‐shell renormalisation of mass, wavefunction

and charge, BPH renormalisation, counterterms, renormalisation group, running

coupling constant.

Suggested reading:

1. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Fiekd Theory, by Franz Gross(Wiley‐VCH

VerlagGmbH & Co. KgaA, Weinheim, 2004)

2. A First Book of Quantum Field Theory , by A. Lahiri and P.B. Pal (CRC Press, 2005)

3. An Intro. to Quantum Field Theory , by M.E. Peskin and D.V. Schroeder (Perseus,

1995)

4. Quantum Field Theory , by C . Itzykson and J.‐B. Zuber (McGraw‐Hill, 1980)

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Semester‐III : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET318 :Nonlinear Dynamics , (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Flows on the line and in the plane, possibility and impossibility of oscillatory solutions:

Poincare -Bendixson theorem (without proof), types of fixed point, limit cycles and

concept of stability,linear stability analysis, bifurcations, Lyapunov stability, self -

similarity and Fractals, variousdefinitions of dimensions and their differeences,

nume rical and experimental methods to finddimension, chaos: sensitivity to initial

conditions, Lyapunov exponent and the algorithm todetermine it, examples of systems:

driven Duffing's and van der Pol oscillators, how to identifychaos in experimental signals

Unit II:

Maps as Poincare sections, one dimensional maps: (skewed) tent, logistic and Bernoulli

shift,Feigenbaum numbers and universality, Sarkovskii's theorem: period 3 implies

chaos, Twodimensional maps: cat map, baker's map and horseshoe map, ergodicit y and

mixing, stationarydensities (invariant measures), Kolmogorov entropy, symbolic

dynamics, different routes to chaos, attractor reconstruction: delay coordinates, Taken's

embedding theorem, linear stability analysisof periodic orbits, stable and unstab le

manifolds

Unit III:

Hamiltonian systems, symplectic structure, integrability, action -angle variables,

perturbation ofintegrable systems, KAM theorem, Hamiltonian maps: kicked rotor and

standard map, KAM tori, Signatures of chaos in classically chaotic quantum systems:

nodal lines, scars, density of statesand Weyl's formula, fluctuations in the spectrum

Unit IV:

Many degrees of freedom: Fermi -Pasta -Ulam problem, nonlinear Schrodinger equation,

KdVequation, solitons: soliton solution of KdV equation, in teraction of solitary waves,

Application

to Atmospheric Physics: Rayleigh -Bernard convection and Lorentz equations, Application

toChemistry: BZ reaction, Application to Astrophysics: Henon -Heiles system

References:

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1. S. H. Strogatz: Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos (1994)

2. Edward Ott : Chaos in dynamical systems, Cambridge university press (1993)

3. Francis C Moon : Chaotic and fractal dynamics, John Wiley(1992)

4. P. G. Drazin, R.S. Johnson : Solitons , an introduction , Cambridge university

press(1989)

5. Michael Tabo r: Chaos and integrability in nonlinear dynamics, John Wiley(1989)

6. Robert Devaney: An introduction to chaotic dynamical systems

7. HanzJurgenStockmann: Quantum chaos, Cambridge university press (1999)

8. M. C. Gutzwiller: Chaos in Classocal and Quantum mechanics (1990)

9. Feder: Fractals

M.Sc. (Physics) Practical Lab Course

Semester –III

Semester III Elective Lab Course‐1

Course no.: PSPHAP302: Advanced Physics Lab‐1 (120 hours, 4 credits)

A) For Students offering electives other than PSPH305, 306, 307, 308 (i.e.

Electronics I or Electronics II), have to perform at least 10 experiments from the

following

I. X‐ray Powder Diffraction – (4‐5 experiments/ analysis of given data)

1. Structure determination of powder polycrystalline sample

2. Intensity analysis of XRD peaks

3. Strain analysis and Particle size determination by XRD

4. XRD Studies of Thin Films: Phase determination by JCPDS

II. Hall Effect

1. AC & DC effect in given semiconducting specimen

2. AC & DC effect at different temperatures and determination of carrier

mobility

3. Calibr ation of unknown magnetic field using a Hall Probe

III. Ther mometry

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1. Measurement of thermo‐emf of Iron‐Copper (Fe‐Cu) or chromel‐alumel

thermocouple as a function of temperature.

2. Voltage‐Temperature characteristics of a Silicon diode sensor

3. Cooling curves and Phase diagram of Pb -Sn alloy system.

4. Ionic conductivity.

5. Creep study in Pb -Sn alloy wire.

6. Stress -Strain curves

IV. Dielectric Constant using LCR bridge

1. Determination of Transition Temperature of a Ferroelectric Material

2. Determination o f Dielectric constant and studying its frequency

dependence

V.LASER

1. Measurement of laser parameters.

2. Laser interferometer to find the wavelength.

VI. Plasma

1. Measurement of critical spark voltage at different separation at a constant

pressure.

2. Measurement of plasma parameters. ‐ Double probe method at constant

pressure.

VII. Nuclear Physics

1. Mass absorption Coefficient of Beta rays and energy range calculation.

2. Understanding of Poisson distribution and Gaussian distribution.

3. Calculation of rest mass of elect ron using Compton scattering experiment.

4. Understanding of Surface barrier detector

5. Relative efficiency of beta and gamma rays using GM counter and feather

comparison method to find range of unknown beta source.

VIII. Semiconductors and devices

1. Resistivity of Ge sample by van der Pauw method at different temp and

determination of band gap

2. Optical transmission and absorption studies of elemental/ compound

semiconductors

3. Band gap of semiconductors by photoconductivity

4. Band gap measurements of thin films using UV-Vis Spectroscopy

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5. I‐V measurements of Ge, Si, GaAs diodes at room temp, identification of

different regions, determination of ideality factor

6. Carrier lifetime by light pulse method

7. d c electrical conductivity of Semiconducting thin films at room

temperature and its temp dependence.

8. Thermo -electric power measurement of semiconducting thin films .

IX. Vacuum techniques and thin films

1. Pump‐down characteristics: pumping speed of rotary and diffusion pump

at constant volume

2. Pumping speed of rotary and diffusion pump at constant volume

3. Vacuum /thermal evaporation method of thin film preparation and

estimation of sheet resistance

4. Measurement of thickness of vacuum /thermal evaporated /chemical bath

deposited thin films by gravimetric method and by interferometry

(Tolansky)

X.Computation

1. Least squares fit / curve‐fitting

2. Interpolation

XI.Microscopy

1. Texture determination by polarizing microscopy

XII. Astronomy and Space Physics

1. Image processing in Astronomy: Use of one of the standard software

packages like IRAF / MIDAS. Aperture photometry using the given

observational data. Seeing profile of a star.

2. CCD: Characteristics of a CCD camera. Differential photometry of a star

w.r.t. a stan dard star.

XIII. Nonlinear Dynamics

1) Write a program to generate trajectories of the logistic map and hence

the bifurcation diagram.

Evaluate the Feigenbaum number numerically and verify the universality

by considering otherunimodal maps.

2) Assemble a simple Chua's circuit on a bread board and observe the

waveforms on anoscilloscope. Observe the double scroll attractor in the xy

mode and the period doublingbifurcations as a control resistance is varied.

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Draw a bifurcation diagram by noting down the p eriodof the waveforms

for different values of the control resistance.

3) Write a program to solve the equations for Duffing’s oscillator and study

its bifurcation diagram.

4) Construct a double pendulum and from its videogrammatic recordings

study its chaotic property.

B) The Students offering electives PSPH305, PSPH306. (i.e. Electronics I )

The student has to perform a minimum of 10 experiments from Group A and Group B

Group A:

A1: 8085/8086 Microprocessor based experiments :

(Any one experiment from 1 & 2. Experiment no. 3 is compulsory )

1. Study of 8085 interrupts (Vector Interrupt 7.5).

2. Study of PPI 8255 as Handshake I/O (mode 1): interfacing switches and LED’s .

3. 8086 assembly la nguage programming :

Simple data manipulation programs.(8/16 -bit addition, subtraction, multiplication,

division, 8/16 bit data transfer, finding greatest/smallest number, finding

positive/negative numbers, finding odd/even numbers, ascending/descending of

numbers, converting BCD nos. into Binary using INT 20, displaying a string of

characters using INT 20)

Please note : Assembly language programming of 8086 may be done by operating PC

in real mode by using 'Debug' program. Separate 8086 study kit not needed.

A2: Microcontroller 8031/8051 based experiments :(Experiment no. 1 is compulsory

and any two experiments from 2, 3 & 4 )

1. 8031/51 assembly language programming:

Simple data manipulation programs.(8/16 -bit addition, subtraction, multiplication,

division, 8/16 bit data transfer, cubes of nos., to rotate a 32 - bit number, finding

greatest/smallest number from a block of data, decimal / hexadecimal counter)

2. Study of IN and OUT port of 8031/51 by Interfacing switches, LEDs and Relays : to

display bit pattern on LED’s, to count the number of “ON” switches and display on

LED’s, to trip a relay depending on the logic condition of switches, event

counter(using LDR and light source)

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3. Study of external interrupts (INT0/INT1) of 8031/51.

4. Study of internal timer and counter in 8031/51.

Group B:

B1: (16F84 or 16FXXX) PIC Micro -controller based experiments ( Using assembly

language only ): (Any two experiments from 1, 2, 3 & 4 )

1a. Interfacing LED’s: flashing LED’s, to display bit pattern, 8 -bit counter.

1b. Interfacing Push Buttons: to increment and decrement the count value at the output

by recognizing of push buttons, etc

2. Interfacing Relay: to drive an ac bulb through a relay; the relay should be tripped on

recognizing of a push button .

3. Interf acing buzzer: the buzzer should be activated for two different frequencies,

depending on recognizing of corresponding push buttons .

B2: C++ and Visual C++ experiments :

(Any two experiments from 1, 2, & 3. Experiment no. 4 is compulsory )

1a. C++ Program (Conversion from decimal system to binary, octal, hexadecimal

system).

1b. C++ Program (Program on mean, variance, standard deviation for a set of numbers).

2a. C++ Program (Sorting of data in ascending or descending order).

2b. C++ experiment (Programs on class, traffic lights)

3. C++ experiment (Programs on inheritance, over l oading)

4. Visual C++ experiment

C) The Students offering electives PSPH307, PSPH308 (i.e. Electronics II), have to

perform atleast 10 experiments from the following:

I Electronics Communication:

1. Generation of AM signal using OTA IC CA3080/op‐amp and demodulation

using diode demodulator.

2. Balanced modulator and demodulator ‐ study of suppressed carrier AM

generation using IC 1496/1596.

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3. Generation of FM signal using IC 566/XR 2206

4. Characteristics of PLL IC 565/4046.

5. Frequency multiplication using PLL IC 565/4046.

6. FM modulator and demodulator using PLL IC 565/4046.

7. Loss measurements and numerical aperture in optical fiber.

8. Linear control system using fiber optical communication method.

9. Telemetry using optical fiber system.

10. Study of reflex Klystron modes us ing X‐band and oscilloscope.

11. Study of propagation characteristics in a waveguide.

12. Simulation of radiation patterns of various antennas.

IIComputation

1. Least squares fit / curve‐fitting

2. Interpolation

References:

(i) Op‐amp and linear ICs by RamakantGayakwad (3rd ed. 1993, Prentice Hall

of India).

(ii) Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller (6th ed., 1999,

Prentice Hall International, Inc.).

(iii) Op‐amp and linear integrated circuits by Coughlin and Driscoll (4th ed.

1992, Prentice Hall of India).

(iv) Integrate Circu its by K. R. Botkar (8th ed., Khanna Publishers, Delhi ).

(v) Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits by

Sergio Franco (3rd ed., Tata McGraw Hill).

(vi) Analog and Digital Communication Systems by Martin S. Roden (5th ed.,

Shroff Publisher s and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.).

(vii) Microwaves by K. C. Gupta (New Age International Ltd.).

(viii) Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy and John Coolen (4th ed.,

Pearson Education).

(ix) Basic microwave techniques and laboratory manual by M. L. Sisodia and G.

S. Raghu vanshi (Wiley Eastern Ltd. 1987.).

(x) Electronic communication systems by George Kennedy and Bernard Davis

(4th ed., Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi).

(xi) Digital communication systems by Harold Kolimbiris (Pearson Education

Asia).

(xii) Optical fib er communication by G. Keiser (3rd ed., McGraw Hill).

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(xiii) Digital signal processing demystified by James D. Broesch (Penram

International Publications, India).

(xiv) The indispensable PC hardware book ‐ Hans‐Peter Messmer, Addison

Wesley (PEA).

(xv) Parallel port complet e by Jan Axelson, (Penram International Publications,

India).

(xvi) Serial port complete by Jan Axelson, (Penram International Publications,

India).

(xvii) 8031/8051 Manuel Provided by the manufacturers

(xviii) AVD:‐Microcontrollers by Ajay V. Deshmukh, Tata‐Mcgraw Hill Public ation

(xix) The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems by M.A. Mazidi, J.G.

Mazidi and R.D. Mckinlay, Second Edition, Pearson

(xx) Starting out with C++ from Control structures through objects, by Tony

Gaddis, Sixth edition, Penram International Publications, India

(xxi) Object Oriented Programming with C++, By E. Balagurusamy, 2nd ed. TMH.

Note:

1. Journal should be certified by the laboratory in‐charge only if the student

performs satisfactorily the minimum number of experiments as stipulated above.

Such students, who do not have certified journals, will not be allowed to appear

for the practical examinations.

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M.Sc. (Physics) Theory Courses

Semester –IV

Semester‐IV : Paper‐I:

Course no: PSPH401 Experimental Physics (60 hours 4 Credits)

Unit‐I

Data Analysis for Physical Sciences: Population and Sample, Data distributions

Probability,Probability Distribution, Distribution of Real Data, The normal

distribution, The normal distribution, From area under a normal curve to an interval,

Distribution of sample means, The central limit theorem, The t distribution, The

log‐normal distribution, Assessing the normality of data, Population mean and

continuous distributions, Population mean and expectation value, The binomial

distribution The Poisson distribution, Experimental Error, Measurement, error and

uncertainty, The process of measurement, True value and error, Precision and

accuracy, Random and systemati c errors, Random err ors, Uncertainty in

measurement.

Main Reference: Data Analysis for Physical Sciences (Featuring Excel®) Les Kirkup, 2nd

Edition, Cambridge University Press (2012), Chapters 1‐6 and 9

Additional Reference: Statistical Methods in Practice for scientists ad Technologists,

Richard Boddy and Gordon Smith, John Wiley & Sons (2009)

Internal tests will be of solving problems using Excel.

Unit II

Vacuum Techniques: Fundamental processes at low pressures, Mean Free Path,

Time to formmonolayer, Num ber density, Materials used at low pressurs, vapour

pressure Impingement rate, Flow of gases, Laminar and turbulent flow, Production of

low pressures; High VacuumPumps and systems, Ultra High Vacuum Pumps and

System, Measurement of pressure, Leak detection s

References:

I. Vacuum Technology, A. Roth, North Holland Amsterdam

II. Ultra High Vacuum Techniques, D. K. Avasthi, A. Tripathi, A. C. Gupta, Allied

Publishers Pvt. Ltd (2002)

III. Vacuum Science and Technology, V. V. Rao, T. B. Ghosh, K. L. Chopra, Allied

Publishers Pvt. Ltd (2001)

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Unit III

Nuclear Detectors: Gamma ray spectrometer using NaI scintillation detector , High

Purity Germanium detector, Multi -wire Proportional counter

Acclerators: CockroftWalten Generator, Van de Graaf Generator, Sloan and

Lawrence typeLinear Accelerator, Proton Linear Accelerator, Cyclotron and

Synchrotron .

References

1. Nuclear Radiation Detection‐ William James Price , McGraw Hill

2. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, W.R. Leo, Springer‐

Verlag

3. Radiation Detection and Measurement, Glenn F. Knoll, John Wiley and sons,

Inc.

4. Particle Accelerators, Livingston, M. S.; Blewett, J.

5. Introduction to Nuclear Physics, HA Enge, pp 345‐353

6. Electricity & Magnetism and Atomic Physics Vol. II, J. Yarwood

7. Principles of Particle Accelerators, E. Persico, E. Ferrari, S.E. Segre

8. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy, C. N. Banwell, Tata‐McGraw Hill

9. Radiation detection & Measurement -Glenn F. Knoll

10. Techniques for Nuclear & Particle Physics Experiment - William Leo

Unit IV

Characterization techniques for materials analysis:

1. Spectroscopy: XRD,XRF, XPS, EDAX , Raman, UV Visible spectroscopy, FTIR

spectroscopy .

2. Microscopy: SEM , TEM, AFM

References:

i. An Introduction to Materials Characterization, Khangaonkar P. R., Penram

International Publishing

ii. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, W. K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M. A.

Nicolet, Academic Press

iii. A Guide to Materials Characterization and Chemical Analysis, John P. Sibilia,

Wiley‐ VCH; 2 edition

iv. Fundamentals of Surface and Thin Film Analysis, L.C. Feldman and J.W.

Mayer North Holland amsterdam

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v. Elements of X‐ray diffraction, Cullity, B. D Addison‐Wesley Publishing

Company, Inc.

vi. Nano: The Essentials: T.Pradeep, TMH Publications

Semester‐IV : Paper‐II:

Course no: PSPH402 Atomic and Molecular Physics (60 hours 4 Credits)

Unit I:Review* of one‐electron eigenfunctions and energy levels of bound states,

Probabilitydensity, Virial theorem.

Fine structure of hydrogenic atoms, Lamb shift. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift.

(ER 8‐6 )

Linear and quadratic Stark effect in spherical polar coordinates. Zeeman effect in

strong and weak fields, Paschen‐Back effect. (BJ, GW)

Schrodinger equation for two electron atoms: Identical particle s, The Exclusion

Principle. Exchange forces and the helium atom (ER), independent particle model,

ground and excited states of two electron atoms. (BJ)

Unit II

The central field, Thomas‐Fermi potential, the gross structure of alkalis (GW). The

Hartree the ory, ground state of multi‐electron atoms and the periodic table (ER), The

L‐S coupling approximation, allowed terms in LS coupling, fine structure in LS

coupling, relative intensities in LS coupling, j‐j coupling approximation and other

types of coupling (GW)

Unit III:

Interaction of one electron atoms with electromagnetic radiation: Electromagnetic

radiation and its interaction with charged particles, absorption and emission

transition rates,dipole approximation. Einstein coefficients, selection rules.Li ne

intensities and life times of excited state, line shapes and line widths. X‐ray spectra.

(BJ)

Unit IV:

Born‐Oppenheimer approximation ‐ rotational, vibrational and electronic energy

levels of diatomic molecules, Linear combination of atomic orbitals (L CAO)and

Valence bond (VB) approximations, comparison of valence bond and molecular

orbital theories (GA, IL)

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A) Rotation of molecules: rotational energy levels of rigid and non‐rigid diatomic

molecules,classification of molecules, linear, spherical, symme tric and asymmetric

tops. B) Vibration of molecules: vibrational energy levels of diatomic molecules,

simple harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, diatomic vibrating rotator and

vibrational‐rotational spectra. c) Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules: vi brational

and rotational structure of electronic spectra . (GA, IL)

Quantum theory of Raman effect, Pure rotational Raman spectra, Vibrational Raman

spectra, Polarization of light and the Raman effect, Applications

General theory of Nuclear Magnetic Resona nce (NMR). NMR spectrometer, Principle

of Electron spin resonance ESR. ESR spectrometer. (GA, IL)

(*Mathematical details can be found in BJ. The students are expected to be

acquainted with them but not examined in these.)

Reference:

1. Robert Eisberg and Robe rt Resnick, Quantum physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids,

Nuclei and Particles, John Wiley & Sons, 2nded, (ER)

2. B.H. Bransden and G. J. Joachain, Physics of atoms and molecules, Pearson

Education 2nded, 2004 (BJ)

3. G. K. Woodgate, Elementary Atomic Structure, Oxford university press, 2nded,

(GW).

4. G. Aruldhas, Molecular structure and spectroscopy, Prentice Hall of India 2nded,

2002 (GA)

5. Ira N. Levine, Quantum Chemistry, Pearson Education, 5th edition, 2003 (IL)

Additional reference:

1. Leighton, Principals of Modern Physics, McGraw hill

2. Igor I. Sobelman, Theory of Atomic Spectra, Alpha Science International Ltd. 2006

3. C. N. Banwell, Fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy, Tata McGraw‐Hill, 3rded

4. Wolfgang Demtröder, Atoms, molecules & photons, Springer‐Verlag 200 6

5. SuneSvanberg, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy Springer, 3rded 2004

6. C.J. Foot, Atomic Physics, Oxford University Press, 2005 (CF)

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Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET401: Experimental Techniques In Nuclear Physics (60 lectures, 4

credits)

UNIT I: (12 lectures + 3 Tutorials)

Radiation sources: electrons, heavy charged particles, neutrons, neutrinos, and

electromagnetic radiation. Charge particle interaction: Stopping power, energy loss

and range straggling, scaling laws, bremsstrahl ung, Cherenkov radiation. Interaction

of photons: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, pair production. Slow and fast

neutron cross‐sections, neutrino interactions, Radiation exposure and dose,

Biological effects, Radiation safety in Nuclear Physics L aboratory.

UNIT II : (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

Characteristics of Probability Distributions, The binomial Distributions, The Poisson

Distribution, The Gaussian Distribution, Measurement of errors: systematic errors,

Random errors. Error propagation Gener al Characteristics of Detectors: detector

response and sensitivity, energy resolution, timing characteristics, dead time,

detection efficiency. Modes of detector operation.

UNIT III: (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

Gas‐filled ionization detectors: ionization c hamber, proportional counters including

Multi‐Wire Proportional Counters, Geiger‐Muller counter. Scintillation detectors:

organic (crystals, liquids and plastics) and inorganic (alkali halide and activated). Light

collection, Photomultiplier tubes. Semicon ductor detectors: silicon diode detectors

(surface barrier, ion‐implanted, lithium‐ drifted), position‐sensitive detectors,

intrinsic germanium detectors, Introduction to Large Detector Arrays.

UNIT IV: (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

Electronics for pulse Sig nal Processing: Pre‐amplifiers, Main Amplifiers, Pulse shaping

networks in Amplifiers, Biased Amplifiers, Discriminators, Constant fraction

Discriminator, Single channel Analyser, Analog to Digital converter, Multi‐channel

Analyser, Time to Amplitude Conve rter. Delayed Coincidence Techniques, slow and

fast Coincidence Techniques, Electrostatic and Magnetic Spectrometers, Overview of

Instrumentation Standards.

Note: tutorials may include demonstration of the various instruments

References:

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1. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, W.R. Leo, Springer‐

Verlag

2. Radiation Detection and Measurement, Glenn F. Knoll, John Wiley and sons,

Inc.

3. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, Stefaan Tavernier,

Springer

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET402: Particle Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

UNIT I :GENERAL CONCEPTS (12 LECTURES + 3 TUTORIALS)

1. Survey of Particle Physics

The four fundamental interactions, classification by interaction strength and

decay lifetimes, numerical estimates, use of natural units.

Classification of elementary particles by masses, interactions and conserved

quantum numbers, selection rules for particle decays and scattering.

2. Experimental Techniques:

Particle detectors and accelerators: cloud and bubble chambers, emulsion

techniques, electronic detectors, proportional counters, fixed target and

collider machines, basic idea of cyclotron, synchrotron and linac.

3. Klein Gordon equation

Relativistic energy‐momentum relation, Klein‐Gordon equation, solutions of

the equation, probability conservation problem, relation with negative energy

states.

4. Dirac equation

Dirac equation, algebra of matrices, conservation of probability, solutions of

Dirac equation, helicity and chirality, Lorentz covariance, bil inear covariants,

trace relations and similar identities, C, P and T invariance of the Dirac

equation.

UNIT II: QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. The QED Lagrangian

Structure of the QED Lagrangian, gauge invariance and conserved current, scalar

electrodynamics, Feynman rules for QED (no derivation).

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2. Basic Processes in QED :

Feynman diagram calculation for , phase space integration, Moller and

Bhabha Scattering, polarisation vectors, Compton scattering and pair

creation/annihilation, Klein‐Nishina formula.

3. Higher Orders in QED

Concept of multi‐loop diagrams (no computation), momentum integral, UV and IR

singularities, idea of regularisation, running coupling constant.

UNIT III: QUARK PARTON MODEL (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. The Eightfold Way

Isospin and strangeness, introduction to unitary groups, generators, Casimir

invariants, fundamental and adjoint representations, root and weight

diagrams, meson and baryon octets, baryon decuplet and the prediction of the

Ω , Gell‐Mann‐Nishijima formula.

2. Quark Model

Product representations and irreps, symmetry group, Young tableaux, quark

model, meson and baryon wavefunctions.

3. Deep Inelastic Scattering

Elastic scattering off a point particle, form factors, Rosenbluth formula, Breit

frame, inelastic scattering, structure functions, dimensionless variables.

4. Parton Model

Bjorken scaling, parton model, structure functions in terms of PDFs,

Callan‐Gross relation, kinematic regions, valence and sea quarks, gluons.

UNIT IV: WEAK INTERACTIONS (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. Fermi theory

Beta decay, Fermi and Gamow‐Teller transitions, current‐current f orm of

weak interactions, Fermi constant, universality, unitarity violation at high

energies.

2. Intermediate vector bosons

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bosons, unitarity, requirement of conserved currents, muon decay, pion

decay, form factor.

3. Parity violation

Intrinsic parity, parity conservation in strong and electromagnetic

interactions, parity violation in weak interactions, experiments of Wu et al

and of Goldhaber et al , maximal parity violation.

4. Flavour Mixing and CP Violation

FCNC suppression, Cabibbo h ypothesis, kaon decays, theta‐tau puzzle,

mixing, regeneration experiment, GIM mechanism, CKM matrix and

quark mixing.

Suggested reading:

1. Introduction to Elementary Particles , by D. Griffiths (Wiley 1987).

2. Quarks and Leptons , by F. Halzen and A.D. Martin (Wiley 1984).

3. Particle Physics , by B.R. Martin and G. Shaw (Wiley 2008).

Semester‐IV: Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET403 : Crystalline & Non crystalline solids, (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Crystal Growth and Crystal Defects

Crystal growth: Phase equilibria and Crystallization Techniques, phase diagrams and

solubility curves, Kinetics of Nucleation, Rate equation, Heterogeneous and

secondary nucleation, Crystal surfaces, growth mechanisms, mass transport, crystal

morphology,, influence of supersat uration, temperature, solvents, impurities;

Polymorphism – phase transition and kinetics.

Crystal Defects: Point Defects, equilibrium concentration of point defects, Activation

Energy, Colour Centres, Screw and Edge Dislocations, Burger Vector and Burger

circuit, Frank Read source, Stacking Faults, Grain boundaries, partial dislocations.

Role of Crystal Defects in Crystal Growth

Unit II: Crystal Growth Technology

Silicon, Compound semiconductors, CdTe, CdZnTe‐ ,Czochralski technique,

Bridgman technique, Float zone Process, Liquid Phase expitaxy, Molecular Beam

epitaxy. Growth of Oxide & Halide crystals‐ Techniques and applications,

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Unit III: Non Crystalline Solids:

Amorphous Materials : Amorphous semiconductors: Processing, P roperties: (1)

Structural and Electrical conduction mechanism, band‐gap, Hall effect ,

(2)Optical:Absorption of light(U.V.,I.R) Applications of amorphous semiconductors:

Solar Cells, Device and Device Materials Amorphous Metals: Metallic Glasses, Quasi

Crystals. Rapi d Quenching Technique, Properties Applications.

Liquid Crystals : Classification‐isotropic‐nematic, smectic‐cholestic phases, Phase

transition of liquid phases, Properties: optical, electric and magnetic fields,

Application of liquid crystals

Polymers: Majo r Polymer Transitions, Polymer Synthesis and Structures, Chain

Polymer and Step Polymer, Cross Linking, fillers, Macromolecule Hypothesis, Phases:

amorphous & Crystalline States

Unit IV: Bulk Characterization Techniques

Bulk Characterization Techniques and their applications: Normal and small angle

XRD, FTIR, UV Spectroscopy, X‐ray Fluorescence, Mossbauer, NMR, ESR, neutron

diffraction

References:

Unit 1.

1. “from Molecules to Crystallizers: An introduction to Crystallization” Roger

Davy and John Garside Oxfor d University Press (2000)

2. C. Kittel “ Solid state Physics : an Introduction” 5 thed Wiley eastern Chap 17

and 18.

3. N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin “Solid State Physics” Saunders College Chap

30.

Unit 2

1. Crystal Growth Technology” ed Hans J. Scheel and Tsug uo Fukuda Wiley (2004)

Unit 3:

(a) Liquid crystals

1. Peter J. Collins and Michael Hind (Taylor and Francis) Chap 1 and 9

(b) Amorphous semiconductors

2. R. Zallen “the Physics of Amorphous Solids”John Wiley NY (1983)

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3. M.H. Brodsky (ed) “Topics in Applied Physics” 38 Amorphous SemiConductors

(1979).

4. S.E. Elliot “Physics of amorphous Materials” Longman Gp. London (1990)

(c) Polymers

5. L.H. Sperling “Introduction to Physical Polymer Science” Wiley interScience

(2001) Chap 1 and Chap 5 and 6 (relevant portions only)

6. Fred W. Bi llmeyer “Textbook of Polymer Science” Wiley interscience (1971)

Unit 4:

1. “Spectroscopy” ed D.R. Browning McGrawHill (1969)

2. “Characterization of Materials” John B. Watchman and Zwi H. Kalman,

Manning Publications (1993)

3. D.A. Scoog, F.J. Holler and T.A. Nieman“ Principles of Instrument Analysis”

Harcourt Pvt ltd. (1998).

Semester‐IV: Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET404: Properties of Solids (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I Optical and Dielectric properties

Maxwell’s equations and the dielectric function, Lorentz oscillator, the Local field and

thefrequency dependence of the dielectric constant, Polarization catastrophe,

FerroelectricsAbsorption and Dispersion, Kraemers’ Kronig relations and sum rules,

single electron excitationsandplasmons in sim ple metals, Reflectivity and

photoemission in metals and semiconductorsInterband transitions and introduction

to excitons, Infrared spectroscopy.

Unit II Transport Properties

Motion of electrons and effective mass, The Boltzmann equation and relaxation ti me,

Electricalconductivity of metals and alloys, Mathiessen’s rule, Thermo‐electric

effects, Wiedmann‐FranzLaw, Lorentz number, ac conductivity, Galvanomagnetic

effects.

Unit III Magnetism and Magnetic materials

Review: Basic concepts and units, basic types of magnetic order Origin of atomic

moments, Heisenberg exchange interaction, Localized and itinerant electron

magnetism, Stoner criterion for ferromagnetism, Indirect exchange mechanism:

superexchange and RKKY.

Magne tic phase transition: Introduction to Ising Model and results based on Mean

field theory, Other types of magnetic order: superparamagnetism, helimagnetism,

metamagnetism, spinglasses.

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Magnetic phenomena: Hysteresis, Magnetostriction, Magnetoresistance,

Magnetocaloric and magneto‐optic effect.

Magnetic Materials: Soft and hard magnets, permanent magnets, media for

magnetic recording.

Unit IV: Superconductivity

The phenomenon of superconductivity: Perfect conductivity and Meissner effect.

Electrodynamics of superconductivity: London’s equations, Thermodynamics of the

superconducting phase transition: Free energy, entropy and specific heat jump.

Ginzburg‐Landau theory of superconductivity: GL equations, GL parameter and

classification into Type I and Type I I superconductors, The mixed state of

superconductors.

Microscopic theory: The Cooper problem, The BCS Hamiltonian, BCS ground state

Josephson effect: dc and ac effects, Quantum interference.

Superconducting materials and applications: Conventional and Hig h Tc

superconductors, superconducting magnets and transmission lines, SQUIDs.

References

1. Solid State Physics, H. Ibach and H. Luth, Springer( Berlin) 2003 (IL)

2. Solid State Physics, Neil Ashcroft and David Mermin (AM)

3. Introduction to Solid State Physics (7th/ 8th ed) Charles Kittel (K)

4. Principles of Condensed Matter Physics, Chaikin and Lubensky (CL)

5. Intermediate theory of Solids, Alexander Animalu (AA)

6. Optical Properties of Solids, Frederick Wooten, Ac Press (New York) 1972 (FW)

7. Elect rons and Phonons, J M Ziman

8. Electron transport in metals, J.L. Olsen

9. Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, K.H.J. Buschow and F.R. de Boer

10. Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, D. Jiles

11. Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, B. D. Cullity

12. Solid State Magnetism, J. Crangle

13. Magnetism in Solids, D. H. Martin

14. Superconductivity Today, T.V. Ramakrishnan and C.N.R.Rao

15. Superconductivity, Ketterson and Song

16. Introduction to Superconductivity, Tinkham

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Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET405: 32 – Bit Microprocessor, Interfacing 8 -bit Microcontrollers

& PIC Microcontrollers (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit -I:PIC 16F8XX Flash Microcontrollers:

Introduction, Pin Diagram, STATUS Register, Power Control Register (PCON),

OPTION_REG Register, Program memory, Data memory, I/O Ports

AVD – Ch 10: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.10

Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Modules in PIC 16F877, Analog -to-Digital Converter

AVD – Ch 11: 11.1, 11.2, 11.5

Ref. AVD: - Microcontrollers by Ajay V. Deshmukh, Tata -Mcgraw Hill Publication

Unit -II: Interfacing microcontroller/PIC microcontroller and Industrial Applications

of microcontrollers:

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs); Push Buttons, Relays and Latch Connections; Keyboa rd

Interfacing; Interfacing 7 -Segment Displays; LCD Interfacing; ADC and DAC Interfacing

with 89C51 Microcontrollers.

Introduction and Measurement Applications (For DC motor interfacing and PWM

refer Sec 17.3 of MMM)

AVD: Ch.12, Ch.13.

MMM: Sec 17.3

Ref. AVD: - Microcontrollers by Ajay V. Deshmukh, Tata -Mcgraw Hill Publication

MMM: -The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems by M.A. Mazidi, J.G.

Mazidi and R.D. Mckinlay, Second Edition, Pearson

Unit -III: ARM 7:

The ARM Architecture: The Acorn RISC Machine, Architectural inheritance, The ARM

Programmer’s model, ARM development tools.

SF - Ch 2: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4

ARM Organization and Implementation: 3 – stage Pipeline ARM organization, ARM

instruction execution, ARM implementation.

SF - Ch 4: 4.1, 4.3, 4.4

ARM Processor Cores : ARM7TDMI

SF – Ch 9: 9.1 only

Ref. SF: - ARM System -on-Chip Architecture, by Steve Furber, Second Edition,

Pearson

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Unit -IV: ARM 7

ARM Assembly language Programming : Data processing instructions, Data transfe r

instructions, Control flow instructions, Writing simple assembly language programs.

SF – Ch 3: 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4

The ARM Instruction Set : Introduction, Exceptions, Condition execution, Branch and

Branch with Link (B, BL), Branch, Branch with Link and eXchange (BX,BLX), Software

Interrupt (SWI), Data processing instructions , Multiply instructions, Count leading

zeros (CLZ), Single word and unsigned byte data transfer instructions, Half -word and

signed byte data transfer instructions, Multiple register transfer instructions, Swap

memory and register instructions (SWP), Status register to general register transfer

instructions, General register to Status register transfer instructions

SF – Ch 5: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5 .12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15

The Thumb Instruction Set : the Thumb bit in the CPSR, The Thumb programmer’s

model, Thumb branch instructions, Thumb software interrupt instruction, Thumb

data processing inst ructions, Thumb single register data transfer instructions , Thumb

multiple register data transfer instructions, Thumb breakpoint instruction, Thumb

implementation, Thumb applications, Example and exercises .

SF – Ch 7: 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11

Ref. SF: - ARM System -on-Chip Architect ure, by Steve Furber, Second Edition,

Pearson

Additional Ref:

1 Microprocessors and interfacing, programming and hardware, By Douglas V. Hall

(TMH)

2 8086 Microprocessor: Programming and Interfacing K.J.Ayala, Penram

International

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET406: VHDL, Understanding USB and Communication

Interface (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit – I: VHDL -I:

Introduction to VHDL: VHDL Terms, Describing Hardware in VHDL, Entity,

Architectures , Concurrent Signal Assignment , Event Scheduling, Statement

concurrency, Structural Designs, Sequential Behavior, Process Statements, Process

Declarative Region, Process Statement Part, Process Execution, Sequential

Statements, Architecture Selection, Co nfiguration Statements, Power of

Configurations.

DLP - Ch 1

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BehavioralModeling : Introduction to BehavioralModeling, Transport Versus Inertial

Delay, Inertial Delay, Transport Delay, Inertial Delay Model, Transport Delay Model,

Simulation Deltas, Drivers, Driver Creation, Bad Multiple Driver Model, Generics,

Block Statements, Guarded Blocks.

DLP - Ch 2

Sequential Processing : Process Statement, Sensitivity List, Process Example, Signal

Assignment Versus Variable Assignment, Incorrect Mux Example, Correct Mu x

Example, Sequential Statements, IF Statements, CASE Statements, LOOP statements,

NEXT Statement, EXIT Statement, ASSERT Statement, Assertion BNF, WAIT

Statements, WAIT ON Signal, WAIT UNTIL Expression, WAIT FOR time_expression,

Multiple WAIT Conditions, WAIT Time -Out, Sensitivity List Versus WAIT Statement,

Concurrent Assignment Problem, Passive Processes.

DLP - Ch 3

Ref. DLP: - VHDL programming by example by Douglas L. Perry, Fourth edition, Tata

McGraw -Hill

Unit -II: VHDL -II:

Data Types : Object Types, Signal, Variables, Constants, Data Types, Scalar Types,

Composite Types, Incomplete Types, File Types, File Type Caveats, Subtypes.

DLP - Ch 4

Subprograms and Packages : Subprograms Function, Conversion Functions,

Resolution Functions, Procedures, Package s, Package Declaration, Deferred

Constants, Subprogram Declaration, Package Body.

DLP - Ch 5

Predefined Attributes : Value Kind Attributes, Value Type Attributes, Value Array

Attributes, Value Block Attributes, Function Kind Attributes, Function Type

Attributes, Function Array Attributes, Function Signal Attributes, Attributes ‘EVENT

and ,LAST -VALUE Attribute ‘LAST -EVENT Attribute, ‘ACTIVE and ‘LAST -ACTIVE Signal

Kind Attributes, Attribute ‘DELAYED, Attribute ‘STABLE, Attribute ‘QUIET, Attribute

TRANSA CTION, Type Kind Attributes, Range Kind Attributes.

DLP - Ch 6

Configurations : Default Configurations, Component Configurations, Lower -Level

Configurations, Entity -Architecture Pair Configuration, Port Maps, Mapping Library

Entities, Generics in Configura tions, Generic Value Specification in Architecture,

Generic Specifications in Configurations, Board -Socket -Chip Analogy, Block

Configurations, Architecture configurations.

DLP - Ch 7

Ref. DLP: - VHDL programming by example by Douglas L. Perry, Fourth editi on, Tata

McGraw -Hill

## Page 62

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Unit -III: Understanding USB and USB Protocols

USB Basics: Uses and limits, Evolution of an interface, Bus components, Division of

Labor, Developing a Device.

JA – Ch 1

Inside USB Transfers: Transfer Basics, Elements of a Transfer, US B 2.0 Transactions,

Ensuring Successful Transfers, SuperSpeed Transactions.

JA – Ch 2

A Transfer Type for Every Purpose: Control transfers, Bulk Transfers, Interrupt

Transfers, Isochronous Transfers, More about time -critical transfers.

JA – Ch 3

Enumerati on: How the Host learns about devices : The Process, Descriptors.

JA – Ch 4

Control Transfers: Structured Requests for Critical Data: Elements of a Control

Transfer, Standard Requests, Other Requests.

JA – Ch 5

Chip Choices : Components of USB device.

JA – Ch 6: Pages 137 - 141

How the Host Communicates: Device Drivers, Inside the Layers, Writing Drivers,

Using GUIDs.

JA – Ch 8

Ref. JA: - The Developers Guide “USB Complete”, by Jan Axelson, Fourth Edition,

Penram International Publishing (India) Pvt Ltd

Unit -IV: Communication Interface

On board Communication Interface : Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C), Serial Peripheral

Interface (SPI), Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART), Wire Interface,

Parallel Interface

External Communication Inter faces : RS-232 & RS -485, USB, IEEE 1394 (Firewire),

Infrared (IrDA), Bluetooth, Wi -Fi, ZigBee, GPRS.

SKV: Ch – 2: 2.4

Detailed studies of I2C Bus refer :

I2C Bus Specification Version 2.1 by Philips (Pages 4 -18 and 27 -30)

(Download from www.nxp.com)

The I2C -Bus Benefits designers and manufacturers (Art 2: 2.1, 2.2)

Introduction to the I2C -Bus Specification (Art 3)

The I2C -Bus Concept (Art 4)

General Characteristics (Art 5)

Bit Transfer (Art 6)

Data validity (6.1), START and STOP conditions (6.2)

Transferring Data (Art 7)

Byte format 7.1, Acknowledge 7.2

Arbitration and Clock Generation (Art 8)

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Synchronization (8.1), Arbitration (8.2), Use of the clock synchronizing

mechanism as

a handshake (8.3)

Formats with 7 -Bit Addresses (Art 9)

7-Bit Addressing (Art 10)

Definition of bits in the first byte (10.1)

10-Bit Addressing (Art 14)

Definition of bits in the first two bytes (14.1), Formats with 10 -bit addresses

(14.2)

Detailed study of Bluetooth : Overview, Radio Specifications, FHSS

WS: Ch - 15: 15.1, 15.2 upto Page 512

Ref: SKV : - Introduction to embedded systems, by Shibu K. V. ,Sixth Reprint 2012,

Tata Mcgraw Hill

WS:-Wireless Communications and Networks, by William Stallings, 2nd edition

Pearson

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET407: Digital Communication Systems and Python Programming

language(60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:Digital Modulation : Introduction , information capacity , bits , bit rate , Baud

and M‐Aryencoding , ASK , FSK , PSK , QAM , Bandwidth efficiency , carrier recovery ,

clock recovery. Digital Transmission : Introduction, Pulse modulation, PCM sampling,

Signal to quantizationn oise ratio, Commanding, PCM line speed, Delta modulation

PCM, Adaptive delta modulation.

Unit II:

Telephone Instruments and Signals: Introduction, The subscriber Loop, Standard

telephoneset, Basic telephone call procedures, Call progress tones and signals,

Cordless telephones, Caller ID, Electronic telepho nes.

Telephone Circuits : Introduction, Local subscriber loop, Transmission parameters

and privateline circuits (concepts only), Voice frequency circuit arrangement.

Unit III:

Study of PC Serial Port: Optio ns and choices, Formats and protocols, The PCs serial

port fromthe connector in, PC programming.

Cellular Phone Concepts : Introduction , Mobile phone service , evolution of cellular

phone ,frequency reuse , interference , cell Splitting , sectoring , segm entation and

dualization , cellular system topology , roaming and handoffs

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Cellular Phone Systems : Digital cellular phone, Interim standard 95, CDMA,

GSMcommunication.

Unit IV:

Python Programming language: Introduction, Installing Python, First steps, The

basics,operators and expressions, control flow, Functions.

More emphasis on writing small programmes using Python language

Main References:

1. Advanced Electronic Communications Systems (Sixth edition) by Wayne

Tomasi (PHI EE Ed)

2. Serial Port Complete by Jan A xelson; Penram International Publications.

3. A Byte of Python by C. H. Swaroop.

Additional References:

1. Electronic Communication Systems Fundamentals Through Advanced by

Wayne Tomasi; 4th Edition, Pearson education Singapore.

2. Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy and John Coolen, (4th ed.,

Pearson Education).

3. Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller, (6th ed., Prentice Hall

International, Inc.).

4. Wireless Communication Technology by Roy Blake, (Delmar – Thomson

Learning).

5. Digital Communications Systems by Harold Kolimbiris, (Pearson Education

Asia).

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET408: Computer Networking (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Overview of Data Communication and Networking: Introduction, Data

communications, Networks, The internet, Protocols and standards; Network models,

Layered tasks, Internet model, OSI model.

Data Link layer: Error detection and correction, Types of errors, Detection, Error

correction, Data link control and protocols, Flow and error control, Stop a nd wait

ARQ, Go‐back‐N ARQ, Selective repeat ARQ, HDLC, Point to point access, Pont to

point protocol, PPP stack, Multiple access, Random access, Controlled access,

Channelization.

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Unit II:

Local Area Networks: Ethernet: Traditional ethernet, Fast ethernet , Gigabit Ethernet,

Wireless LANs, IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth. Connecting LANs, Connecting devices

(Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Two layer switch, Router and three layer switches),

Backbone networks, Virtual LANs, Virtual circuit switching, Frame relay, ATM, ATM

LANs.

Unit III:

Network Layer: Internetworks, Addressing, Routing, Network layer protocols, ARP, IP,

ICMP, IPV6, Unicast and multicast routing protocols, Unicast routing, Unicast routing

Protocols, Multicast routing, Multicast routing Protocols.

Transport Layer: Process to process delivery, User datagram protocol (UDP),

Transmission control protocol (TCP).

Application Layer: Domain name system, Name space, Domain name space,

Distribution of name space, DNS in the internet, Resolution, DNS messages, DDNS,

Encapsulation, Electronic mail, File transfer (FTP), HTTP, World wide web (WWW).

Unit IV:

Network Security: Cryptography, Introduction, Symmetric cryptography, Public‐key

cryptography, Message security, Digital signature, User authentication, Key

management, Kerberos, Security protocols in the internet, IP level security (IPSEC),

Transport level security, Application layer security, Firewalls, Virtual private network.

References:

1. Data Communications and Networking by B. A. Forouzan (3rd ed., Tata

McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi). Chapters

2. Advanced Electronic communications systems (Sixth edition) by Wayne

Tomasi (PHI – EE Ed)

3. Data Communications and Computer Networks by Prakash Gupta

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐III

Cours e no.: PSPHET409: Physics of Semiconductor Devices (60 lectures, 4 credits)

(N.B.: Problems form an integral part of the course)

Unit I: Metal‐Insulator‐Semiconductor (MIS) Devices:

Review of ideal MIS device, Si‐SiO 2 Practical MOS diode, Oxide charges,

defects, Surface and interface states, C‐V and G‐V measurement techniques

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and characterization of MOS devices. Review of MOSFET Basic device

characteristics, Types of MOSFETs, Non‐ uniform doping and buried‐channel

devices, Short‐channel effects, MOS transi stor scaling. MOSFET structures‐

HMOS, DMOS, SOI, VMOS, and HEXFET. Charge coupled devices (CCDs),

Non‐volatile memory devices, Simulation.

Unit II: Microwave, Power & Hot electron devices:

Microwave devices‐Different types of Tunnel diodes, Tunnel transit or, IMPATT

diode, BARITT diode, DOVETT diode, Transferred electron device, Gunn diode,

Microwave transistor, Thyristors, Bipolar power transistor, Hot electron

transistor; MOS Power transistor, HEMT.

Unit III: Optoelectronic Devices:

Light‐Emitting Diodes, Liquid crystal displays, Photo detectors, Photodiode

materials, Phototransistor, Solar cells, Materials and design considerations,

Thin film solar cells, amorphous silicon solar cells, Semiconductor Lasers,

Optical processes in semiconductor lasers (JS‐Ar t.15.8), Heterojunction lasers.

Exciton (JS‐Art16.1), Quantum confined Stark effect (JS.Art16.6), Quantum

well IR photodetector, Application of laser in materials processing, Fiber

optical waveguides, Losses and dispersion in fibers, Measurement of fiber

characteristics, Fiber materials and fabrication, Fiber optics simulation.

Unit IV: Quantum well & Nano structures:

Quantum wells: Band structure modifications by heterostructures; Band

structure in quantum wells, quantum wires, quantum dots; Modulation

doping; Mobility in a MODFET quantum well (JS‐6.2, 6.3, 8.6, 14.2)

Nanotechnology: Nanomaterials, nanostructures, Synthesis of nanoparticles,

Semiconductor nanocrystals, Metallicnanoclusters, Carbon nanostructures,

Bulk nanostructured materials, Microelectrom echanical systems (MEMS).

Main References:

1. S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley, N.Y., 1981,

2. Jasprit Singh, Semiconductor Devices‐Basic Principles, Wiley Student Edition,

New Delhi, 2009.

3. P. Bhattacharya, Semiconductor Optoelectronics devices, Prentice Hall,

India, 1995.

4. GerdKelser, Optical fiber communication, Mc Graw Hill‐1980.

5. Jasprit Singh, Physics of Semiconductors and their Heterostructures,

McGraw‐Hill, New York, 1993.

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6. C. P. Poole and F. J. Owens, Introduction to Nanotechnolog y, Wiley

Interscience, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2003.

Additional References:

1. E.H. Nicollian an J.R. Brews, MOS Physics and Technology, John Wiley, 1982,

2. J. Wilson and J.F.B. Hawkes, Optoelectronics, An Introduction, Prentice Hall,

1983,

3. Jasprit Singh, Semicond uctor Optoelectronics, Mc‐Graw Hill

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET410: Semiconductor Technology (60 lectures, 4 credits)

(N.B.: Problems form an integral part of the course)

Unit I: Crystal growth and Epitaxy

(a) Crystal growth: Czochralski technique, Bridgman technique, Float zone process,

Zone refining, Zone levelling.

(b) Epitaxy Vapour phase epitaxy (VPE), Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), Molecular beam

epitaxy (MBE), MOCVD, Heteroepitaxy, Growth of III‐V compound

semiconductors, Growt h of silicon on insulator (SOI) structures.

(c) Oxidation and film deposition: Oxide formation, kinetics of oxide growth, thin

oxide growth, oxidation systems.

Unit II: Diffusion and Ion‐implantation

Diffusion: Nature of diffusion, basic diffusion theory, extr insic Diffusion, diffusion

related physical processes, Boron diffusion system, Phosphorus diffusion system.

(a) Ion‐implantation: Range of implanted ions, ion distribution, ion stopping,

ion channeling, Radiation damage and annealing, implantation related

processes, evaluation techniques for epitaxial layer, diffused layer

implanted layer and oxide layer.

Unit III: Lithography and Etching

(a) Lithography: Clean room, Masking, Photoresist, Passivation, Optical,

Electron‐beam, X‐ ray & Ion‐beam lithography.

(b) Etchi ng :Wet chemical etching, Dry etching, Plasma etching.

Unit IV: Integrated Devices

Device and circuit design and fabrication: Passive components‐Integrated

circuit resistor, capacitor and inductor. Bipolar technology: Discrete bipolar

circuit fabrication, Bipolar technology, MOSFET technology, MESFET

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Technology, Fundamental limits of int egrated devices, ULSI Technology;

Simulation.

Main References:

1. S.M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices‐Physics and Technology, John Wiley,1985

2. Integrated circuits (Design principles & fabrication) – R.M.Warner, Motorola

series in Solid State Electronics,

3. K. Martin , Digital Integrated Circuit Design Oxford

University Press, YMCA, New Delhi, 2004

Additional References:

1. E.L. Wolf, Nanophysics and Nanotechnology, Wiley‐VCH Verlag, Weinheim,

2004

2. S.K. Ghandhi, The theory and practice of Microelectronics, John Wiley and

Sons,

3. S.M. Sze, VLSI Technology, Mc Graw Hill Book, N.Y., 2nd Ed

4. S.K. Ghandhi , VLSI fabrication principles, John Wiley, N.Y., 1983

Semester‐IV: Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET411: Materials and their applications (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Engineering Alloys, Production of Iron and Steel, The Iron‐Iron Carbide Phase

Diagram, HeatTreatment of Plain‐Carbon Steels, Low‐Alloy Steels, Aluminum Alloys,

Copper Alloys, StainlessSteels, Cast Irons, Magnesium, Titanium, and Nickel Alloys,

Unit II:

Corrosion, Electrochemical Corrosion of Metals, Galvanic Cells, Corrosion Rates

(Kinetics), Typesof Corrosion, Oxidation of Metals, Corrosion Control.

Unit III:

Polymeric Materials, Polymerization Reactions, Industrial Polymerization Methods,

Crystallinitya nd Stereoisomerism In Some Thermoplastics, Processing of Plastic

Materials, General‐PurposeThermoplastics, Engineering Thermoplastics,

Thermosetting Plastics (Thermosets), Elastomers(Rubbers), Deformation and

Strengthening of Plastic Materials, Creep and F racture of PolymericMaterials.

Unit IV:

Ceramic Materials, Simple Ceramic Crystal Structures, Silicate Structures, Processing

ofCeramics, Traditional and Technical Ceramics, Electrical Properties of Ceramics,

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MechanicalProperties of Ceramics, Thermal Prop erties of Ceramics, Glasses.

Composite Materials, Fibersfor Reinforced‐Plastic Composite Materials,

Fiber‐Reinforced‐Plastic Composite Materials,Open‐Mold Processes for

Fiber‐Reinforced‐Plastic Composite Materials, Closed‐Mold Processesfor

Fiber‐Reinforced ‐Plastic Composite Materials, Concrete, Asphalt and .Asphalt Mixes,

Wood,Sandwich Structures.

Reference:

1. William F Smith, JavadHashemi, Ravi Prakash, Materials Science and Engineering,

Tata‐ McGraw Hill, 4th Edition.

2. William D. Callister, Materials Scienc e and Engineering An Introduction, John

Wiley & Sons, Inc ., 7th Edition.

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET412: Elective 12 Energy Studies (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

A brief history of energy technology, Global energy trends, Global warming and the

greenhouse effect, Units and dimensional analysis, Heat and temperature, Heat

transfer, First law of thermodynamics and the efficiency of a thermal power plant,

Closed cycle for a steam power plant, Useful thermodynamic quantities, Thermal

properties of water and steam, Disadvantages of a Carnot cycle for a steam power

plant,Rankine cycle for steam power plants, Gas turbines and the Brayton (or Joule)

cycle, Combined cycle gas turbine, Fossil fuels and combustion, Fluidized beds,

Carbon sequ estration, Geothermal energy, Basic physical properties of fluids,

Streamlines and stream‐tubes, Masscontinuity, Energy conservation in an ideal fluid:

Bernoulli’s equation, Dynamics of a viscous fluid, Lift and circulation, Euler’s turbine

equation.

(Andr ews and Jelly: Chapter 1, 2, and 3)

Unit II:

Hydropower, power output from a dam, measurement of volume flow rate using a

weir, Water turbines; Impact, economics and prospects of hydropower; Tides, Tidal

power, Power from a tidal barrage, Tidal resonance, Kinetic energy of tidal currents,

Ecological and environmental impact of tidal barrages, Economics and prospects for

tidal power, Wave energy, Wave power devices; Environmental impact, economics

and prospects of wavepower; Binding energyand stability of nuclei, Fission, Thermal

reactors, Thermal reac tor designs, Fast reactors, Present‐day nuclear reactors, Safety

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of nuclear power, Economics of nuclear power, Environmental impact of nuclear

power, Public opinion on nuclear power, Outlook for nuclear power, Magnetic

confinement, D‐T fusion reactor, Perf ormance of tokamaks, Plasmas, Charged

particle motion in E and B fields, Tokamaks, Plasma confinement, Divertor tokamaks,

Outlook for controlled fusion.

(Andrews and Jelly: Chapter 4, 8, and 9)

Unit III:

Source of wind energy, Global wind patterns, Modern wind turbines, Kinetic energy

of wind, Principles of a horizontal‐axis wind turbine, Wind turbine blade design,

Dependence of the power coefficient C p on the tip‐speed ratio , Design of a modern

horizontal‐axis wind turbine, Turbine control and operation, Wind characteristics,

Power output of a wind turbine, Wind farms, Environmental impact and public

acceptance, Economics of wind power, Outlook, Conclusion, The solar spectrum,

Semiconductors, p‐n junction, Solar photocells, Efficiency of solar cells, Comme rcial

solar cells, Developing technologies, Solar panels, Economics of photovoltaics (PV),

Environmental impact of photovoltaics, Environmental impact of photovoltaics,

Outlook for photovoltaics, Solar thermal power plants, Photosynthesis and crop

yields, Biomass potential and use, Biomass energy production, Environmental impact

of biomass, Economics and potential of biomass, Outlook.

(Andrews and Jelly: Chapter 5, 6, and 7)

Unit IV:

Generation of electricity, High voltage power transmission, Transformers, High

voltage direct current transmission, Electricity grids, Energy storage, Pumped

storage, Compressed air energy storage, Flywheels, Superconducting magnetic

energy storage, Batteries, Fuel cells, Storage and production of hydrogen, Outlook

for fuel cell s, Environmental impact of energy production, Economics of energy

production, Cost‐benefit analysis and risk assessment, Designing safesystems, carbon

abatement policies, Stabilization wedges for limiting CO 2 emissions, Conclusions.

(Andrews and Jelly: Cha pter 10 and 11)

Reference:

ENERGY SCIENCE: principles, technologies, and impacts, John Andrews and Nick

Jelley, Oxford University Press

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Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET413: Astronomy and Space Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

The Sky, Instruments and Observational tools: (a) Inventory of the

UniverseWavelength bands of observation: radio, infrared, optical, UV, X‐ray

and Gamma‐ray windows. Ground‐based, balloon‐borne and satellite‐borne

telescopes, Celestial co‐ ordinate system : Right Ascension, Declination Time

keeping. Sidereal and Solar

(b) Resolution of Instruments and Limitations Optical telescopes,

Photometers, Spectrographs, CCDs, Polarimeters. Radio telescopes –

interferometry X‐ray and Gamma‐ray detectors Neutrino and C osmic Ray

astronomy ‐ origin, composition and spectrum.

Unit II:

Stellar Structure and Evolution: Stellar parameters: Mass, Radius, Luminosity,

ChemicalComposition Spectral types colour, magnitude: H‐R diagram. Stellar

physics: Equation of state, Opacity. Nuclear energy generation, Saha

Ionization Equilibrium Planck Blackbody Radiation.Radiative and convective

transport of energy.Internal structure of stars and Virial Theorem.Stellar

atmosphere.Absorption and Emission of lines. Stellar Evolution: Hayashi

phase. Main sequence, Horizontal Branch, Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant

Branches.Planetary Nebulae and Supernova remnants.Stellar rotation.Stellar

magnetism.Mass Loss.Diffusion. Stellar pulsation: Helio ‐ and

Astero‐seismology.

Unit III:

Condensed Objects And High Energy Astrophysics: Compact objects: White

dwarfs andChandrasekhar Limit. Neutron stars and Black holes: Pulsars, X‐ray

and Gamma‐ray sources. Binary systems: Accretion process and associated

phenomena: Bursts and Quasi‐periodic oscillations. Radiation Processes:

Blackbody, Bremstrahlung, Cyclotron, Synchrotron and Inverse Compton

emission. Interaction of high energy particles andphotons with

matter.Acceleration of particles to high energy. Gamma ray Bursts and Very

High Energy C osmic Rays.

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Unit IV:

Solar Physics: Description of solar internal and external layers,

Magnetohydrodynamicequations, Hall effect and generalized Ohm’s law,

Magnetostatic equilibrium and sunspots, Solar activity cycle, Force‐free

magnetic fields, Magnetic reconnections and solar flares, Waves: sound

waves, Alfven waves, Internal gravity waves, inertial waves, magnetosonic

waves; Heating of the solar chromosphere and corona, Coronal mass

ejections, Solar wind and Parker’s solution.

Main References:

Unit 1:

i. F. Shu, The Physical Universe. An Introduction to Astronomy; University

Science Books, Sausalito 1982.,

ii. R.C. Smith, Observational Astrophysics; CUP, 1995,

iii. C.R. Kitchin, Astrophysical Techniques; Adam Hilger, 1984.

Unit 2:

i. M. Schwarzchild, Evolution of the Stars; Dover, 1966.

ii. R.J. Tayler, The Stars: Their Structure and Evolution; CUP 1994.

iii. R.J. Tayler, Galaxies: Structure and Evolution; Wykeham 1978.

Unit 3:

i. H. Harwit, Astrophysical Concepts; Springer Verlag 1988,

ii. M.S. Longair, High Energy Astrophysics, Vols . I and II; CUP 1994.

Unit 4:

i. Solar Magneto –Hydrodynamics, E.R. Priest; D Reidel, 1982. chps. 1, 3.1‐3.5,

4.1, 4.3‐4.5, 6.1‐6.3, 12.1‐12.2.

Additional Books:

i. Astronomy, Fred Hoyle, 1975. Astronomy, 8th ed., Robert H Baker,

ii. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand, 1964. The Stars: Their Structure & Evolution; R.J.

Tayler, CUP, 1994.

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET414: Laser Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Laser characteristics and Resonators:

Principles, Properties of laser radiation,Einstein Coefficients, Light amplification,

Threshold condition for laser oscillations, Homogeneous and inhomogeneous

broadening, Laser rate equations for 2,3 and 4 level, variation of laser power around

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threshold, optimum output coupling, Open planar resonator, Qua lity Factor ,ultimate

line width of the laser, Transverse and Longitudinal mode selection.

Unit II: Nonlinear optics

Techniques for Q -switching, Mode Locking, Hole burning andLamb dip in Doppler

broadened Gas laser, Nonlinear oscillator model, Nonlinear polarization and wave

equation, perturbative solution of the Nonlinear oscillator equation, Hormonic

generation, Second harmonic generation, Phase matching third harmonic generation.

Optical wave mixing, parametric generation of light,parametric oscillation, tuning of

parametric oscillators. Non -Linear susceptibilities, non -linear susceptibility tensor,

non-linear materials

Unit III: Laser Systems :

Solid State Laser, Gas lasers ,liquid lasers, Eximer lasers.Semiconductor Laser. Liquid –

Dye and chemical lasers , high power laser systems and industrial applications.

Unit IV: Spectroscopic Instrumentation and applications:

Raman scattering, photo‐acousticRaman Spectroscopy. Raman Amplification and

Raman laser, special techniques in nonlinear spectroscopy, polarization spectroscopy,

multi -photon spectroscopy, photofluoroscence excitation spectroscopy.

Holographic Optical Element: HOE, Design aspects, resolution, vibration and motion

analysis byHolographic techniques, holography, Spatial Frequency filtering, o ptical

Communication, optical computers. Laser ablation, Laser in Biomedicine.

Main References:

1. B. Laud, Laser and Non‐linear optics, Wiley Eastern Ltd., (1991).

2. A.K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, optical electronics, Cambridge University

Press (1991).

3. S.C Gupta Optoelectronic devices and systems , Prentice Hall of India.

4. (WH) Wilson and Hawkes: Optoelectronics, Prentice Hall of India.

5. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, Oxford University Press

(1997),

6. Laser Spectroscopy‐ Basic concepts and instrumentation by Demtroder (ed. 3,

Springer)

Additional Reference books:

1. Laser: Svelto.

2. Optical electronics: Wariv.

3. Laser spectroscopy: Demtroder.

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4. Non -linear spectroscopy: Etekhov.

5. Introduction to modern optics: G.R.Flowles.

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper ‐III

Course no.: PSPHET415: Liquid Crystals (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit‐I : Introduction to the Science and technology of Liquid Crystal.

Types and Classification of liquid crystals, Nature’s of Anisotropic Liquid

Crystals.Calamtic liquid crystal, Discotic Liquid crystal, Polymer liquid cr ystals, Chiral

liquid crystal, membranescolloidal system. Display Technologies Overview.

Ref: CP: Ch1 ; PDG: Ch 1; PJC: Ch 1, 2, 3,4,5,6.

Unit‐II : Theoretical Insights

Nature of phase transitions and critical phenomenon in liquid crystals, Maier‐Saupe,

Landau de gennes theory, Van der Walls theories. Continuum theory: Curvature

elasticity in nematicsmecticA phases, Distortions due to magnetic and electric fields,

Magneti c coherence length, Freedeicksz transitions. Onsager's mean field theory

Ref: PJC: Ch12, 10. PDG: Ch 7

Unit‐III: Merits of LCs

Dynamical properties of Nematic, equations of nemato‐dynamics, laminar flow, Fluid

vs. solid membranes, energy and elasticity, su rface tension, viscoelasticity, Molecular

motions. LC in electric and magnetic fields, light and liquid crystals, Mechanical,

Optical Properties: Cholesteric, Ferroelectric, Antiferroelectric, Polymer dispersed

liquid crystals, Elastomer.

Ref: PDG: Ch 5,6; SERS: Ch 9; CP: Ch 5

Unit IV : Characterization Techniques and Applications

Techniques used for Identification and characterizations of Liquid crystal phases,

Lyotropic liquid crystals and biological membrane,: Survey over flat panel

technologies. Liquid c rystal displays, plasma displays .Applications of liquid crystals.

Ref: Ref: CP: Ch 2, 9; PJC: Ch 9, 7, 13; DDLR.

Text Book and References

1. Introduction to liquid crystals: Physics and Chemistry.: Peter J Collings and

Michael Hird Taylor and Francis,1997.

2. Liquid crystal: The fourth state of matter.Frankin D saeva. Wiely publication.

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3. Liquid Crystals: S Chandrsekhar, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 1992.

4. The physics of liquid crystals: P G de Gennes and J Prost, Oxford University

5. Ferroelectric liquid crystals: Principle properties and Applications: Gooby et a.l

Gordon & Breach Publishing Group, 1991

6. Thermotropic liquid crystals: Fundamental Vertogen and de jeu.

7. Polymer materials‐Macroscopic properties and molecular Interpretations.

Jean‐Louis Halary,Lucienmonnerie.published by Wiley.

8. The Optic of Thermotropic Liquid Crystals.SteveElston and Roy Sambles.

9. Textures of Liquid Crystals. DetrichDemus, LotharRichter.Newyork 1978

10. Textures of Liquid Crystals‐ Ingo Dierking John Wiley & Sons, 08‐May‐2006 ‐

Technology& Engineering ..

11. Liquid Crystal: Experimental Study of Physical Properties and Phase Transitions

Satyen Kumar, Cambridge University Press, 2001

12. Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: George W. Gray, VolkmarVill, Hans W.

Spies s, Dietrich Demus, John W. Goodby John Wiley & Sons, ‐2009 Technology

&Engineering .

13. Handbook of Liquid Crystals, High Molecular Weight Liquid Crystal Dietrich

Demus, John W. Goodby, George W. Gray, Hans W. Spiess, VolkmarVills –

14. Principles of condensed mat ter physics – P.M. Chalkin and T.C. Lubensky.

15. Collidal Dispersions‐W.B Russel , Cambridge University Press. New York (1989)

16. Properties and Structure of Liquid Crystals

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐IV

Course no.: PSPHET416: Numerical Methods and Programmin g (60 lectures, 4

credits)

Unit I :Programming using C++

Elementary information about digital computer, hardware, software, machine

language program, assembly language program, assembler, disadvantages of

machine and assembly language programming, High level language programs,

interpreter and compilers, flow cha rts‐ symbols and simple flowcharts, Structure of a

C program, header files, constant and variables, data types and their declarations,

operators – arithmetic operators, relational operators, logical operators, assignment

operators, conditional operator. Bu ilt in functions in C, Input/output functions for

integer, floating points, characters and strings. Control statements‐if, if‐else, do‐

while. For loop, nested if and nested for loops, goto statement. Library functions‐

mathematical and trigonometric.Array s‐ one dimensional and two‐ dimensional.User

defined functions‐ definition and declaration of a function, passing arguments, return

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values. File handling‐ operation with files, opening and closing a file. (structures and

unions and pointers are not expecte d)

Unit II :Curve fitting, interpolation, Roots of Equation

Review of Intermediate Value theorem, Rolle's Theorem, Lagrange Mean Value

theorem and Taylor's Theorem, Errors in computation and Numerical stability, Least

squares method Principle, fitting a straight line, fitting a parabola, fitting an

exponential curve, fitting curve of the form y=axb, fitting through a polynomial,

Linear interpolation, difference schemes, Newton’s forward and backward

interpolation formula, Lagrange’s interpolation formula.

Polynomial and transcendental equations, limits for the roots of polynomial

equation. Bisectional method, false position method, Newton‐Raphson method,

direct substitution method

Unit III :Numerical integration and solution of differential equation:

Newto n cotes formula, Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s one third rule, Simpson’s three

eight rule, Gauss quadratics method, Monte Carlo method.

Solution of Ordinary differential equation using Taylor series method, Euler’s

method, Runge‐ Kutta method, Milne’s and Ad ams Bashforth predictor‐corrector

methods

Classification of second order partial differential equation, Solution of partial

differential equation‐Difference equation method over a rectangular domain for

solving elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic partial di fferential equation

Unit IV : Solution of simultaneous equation and Random numbers

Gaussianelimination method, Gaussian elimination with pivotal condensation

method, Gauss‐Jordan elimination method, Gauss‐Seidal iteration method,

Gauss‐Jordan matrix inver sion method.Random numbers ‐ Random number

generation, Monte Carlo simulation using Random walk on a square lattice.

Text and Reference books:

i. H. M. Antia: Numerical methods for scientists and engineers.

ii. S. S. Sastry: Introductory method of numerical analysis, PHI India 2005

iii. Rajaraman : Computer oriented Numerical methods, PHI 2004

iv. P. B. Patil and U. P. Verma : Numerical Computational methods, Narosa Publ.

v. E. Balgurusamy : Programming in ANSI C, Tata McGraw Hill

vi. Jain M.K., Iyengar SRK, Jain R.K. : Nume rical methods for scientific and

vii. Engineering Computation , New Age International, 1992

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viii. http://www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/video.php?subjectId=122102009

ix. Numerical recipes in C

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET417: Polymer Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:Structure of Polymers:

Structure of Crystalline Polymers‐Single crystals.Lamellar Single‐crystals, Fibriliar

crystals. Globular crystals, Spherulites, Structure of Amorphous Polymers ‐Domain

Structure in amorphous polymers. Oriented State of Polymers.Structure & function

of Biopolymers ‐ proteins.DNA.RNA, cellulose.Nano‐composite polymers.

Unit II:Viscoelastic Properties:

Elastic deformation, Maxwell and Kelvin Models, Relaxation processesand relaxation

spectrum. Creep of polymeric mater ials. Polymer Blends : Miscibility, Morphology

and glass transition temperature. Effects of additives and fillers on polymers,

Unit III:Electrical properties of polymers, electrical conduction, Electronic, ionic and

polaron processes.conducting polymers. Photoconduction, photovoltaics and

superconductivity in polymers.Optical absorption and optical birefringence in

polymers.Liquid crystals and electro‐optical properties.

Unit IV:

Preparation of thin films of organic materials (solution casting, electro‐ch emical,

CVD,interfacial method, LB technique), their structure, props, &

Application.Fundamentals of electrochemistry, electrochemical methods for

preparation characterization of thin films‐CV & impedance measurement. Sensors,

types of sensors, electrochem ical & optical sensors‐ Construction & functioning of

these sensors, advantages & disadvantages of these sensors (study of at‐least two

types of sensors).

Main References:

1. Physics of Plastics, P.O. Ruchie. Illiffe Books Co. Ltd, (Chapters I to 4 and 6 to

8),

2. Phys. Chem. of Polymers. Tager A, Mir Pubs, ()9?8),Chs. I, 2, 5, 7, 8. 10, 11, 17)

3. Conductive Polymers, R.B. Seymour (Ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1981)

(Articles 1,3,7,9,11, 17, 19)

4. Elec. Props, of Polymers, D.A. Seanor (Ed.) , Academic Press (1982) ( Chs. 1 ‐ 4,

Ch. 8)

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5. Organic Semiconductors, F, Gutmann and I.E.I. Yons, John Wiley and Sons,

New York 1967) (Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 7)

6. Electrical Properties of Polymers, A.R. Rlythe, Cambridge University Press.

London (1979), (Chapters 1, 5, 6)

7. Elec. Props, of Polymers, J.J. Krosehwitz, John Wiley, New York (1988), Pg,

58‐101.

10. Handbook of Conducting Polymers, T.A. Skotheim, Vol. 1 and. Marcel Dekker

(1986), (Chapters 8. 17, 20, 21.25)

11. Electrochemical Methods, Fundamentals and Application. A.J. Bard and L, R,

Faulkner, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1980)

12. The Chemical Physics of Surfaces, S.R. Morrison, Plenum Publishers (1990)

13. Principles. of Chemical Sensors, Jiri Janata, Plenum Press, New York (1990)

(Ch. 1, 4, 5)

Semester‐IV : Elective Paper‐III

Course no.: PSPHET41 8: Advanced Statistical Mechanics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Ideal Fermi and Bose Systems

Review of quantum ideal canonical and grand canonical ensembles; Statistics of

occupation numbers.Thermodynamic behavior of an ideal Bose gas, phenomenon of

Bose‐Einstein condensation.Thermodynamics of blackbody radiation.

Thermodynamic behavior of an ideal Fermi gas, concept of Fermi energy,

behaviour of specific heat with temperature.

Unit II: Phase transitions and critical phenom ena

The Ising model and mappings; mean -field treatment; exact solution in 1 dimension.

Classification of phase transitions, critical exponents and scaling hypothesis,

correlations and fluctuations, correlation length.Universality; The conceptual basis of

scaling; renormalization group; application to Ising models.

Unit III: Non‐Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: Fluctuations

Brownian motion: as a random walk (Einstein theory), as a diffusion process;

random walk with bias and boundary conditio ns: application to phenomenon of

sedimentation; Langevin theory of Brownian motion; Fluctuation‐dissipation

theorem.Spectral analysis of fluctuations – the Wiener‐Khintchine relations.

Unit IV: Non‐Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: Stochastic Processes

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Chapman -Kolmogorov equation, Kramer -Moyal expansion, Fokker -Planck equation,

Master equation, Boltzmann equation.Linear response function, correlation and

susceptibility.

Main references:

1. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, Greiner, Neise and Stoc ker, Springer

1995.

2. Statistical Mechanics (3 rd ed.), RK Pathria and PD Beale (P), Elsevier 2011.

3. Introduction to Statistical Physics, Kerson Huang (H), Taylor and Francis 2001.

4. The Fokker Planck equation, R. Risken, Springer

5. Stochastic Problems in P hysics and Astronomy, S. Chandrasekhar, Rev. Mod. Phys.

15 (1943) 1.

Additional references:

1. Stochastic Processes in Physics and Chemistry, N.G. van Kampen, North -Holland.

2. Handbook of Stochastic Methods, C. W. Gardiner, Springer

3. Non‐equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, J.K. Bhattacharjee.

4. Elements of Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics, V. Balakrishnan, Ane Books,

India..

5. Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, F. Reif, Levant

M.Sc. (Physics) Practical Lab Course

Seme ster –IV

Semester IV Elective Lab Course‐2

Course no.: PSPHAP402: Advanced Physics Lab‐2 (120 hours, 4 credits)

A) Students offering electives other than PSPH405, 406, 407, 408, (i.e. Electronics I

or Electronics II), have to perform at least 10 experimen ts out of following:

I. Neutron Diffraction: Data analysis for structure and dynamic Q‐factor

II. Mössbauer Spectroscopy

1. Fe57 Mossbauer spectra: Calibration and determination of isomer shift

and hyperfine field

2. Determination of isomer shift in stainless st eel

3. Determination of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting in Sodium

Nitroprusside

4. Fe‐based specimen: Determination of isomer shift, hyperfine field,

estimation of oxidation state in ferrite samples

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III. Hartree –Fock Calculations

IV. Magnetization and Hysteresis

1. B‐H loop in low magnetic fields (dc and ac methods)

2. Hysteresis of ring‐shaped ferrite

3. Determination of Curie/ Neel temperature

4. Susceptibility of paramagnetic salt by Guoy’s method

V. Resistivity and IV Magnetoresistance

1. Resistivity of metallic alloy specimens with varying temperatures

2. Study of percolation limit by resistivity measurement on ceramic

specimens

3. Tracking of first and second order transition by resistivity measurement

in shape memory (NiTi) alloy

4. MR of Semiconductor, Bismuth and LSMO (Manganate) specimen

5. Calibration of magnetic field using MR probe

VI. LASER

1. Refractive index of the given materials

2. Refractive index of the Air at different pressure.

VII. Plasma

1. Measurement of plasma parameters. ‐ Single probe

2. Measurement of plasma parameters. ‐ Double probe method at

constant current.

VIII. Nuclear Physics

1. Energy resolution of NaI detector and understanding of its Pulse

processing electronics

2. Peak to total ratio and efficiency of NaI detector.

3. Sum peak analysis and detector size eff ect on peak to total ratio using

NaI detector.

4. Angular correlation ratio using NaI detector.

5. Coincidence Technique

6. Working mechanism of Plastic detector and measurement of lifetime of

muon.

IX. Semiconductors and devices

1. Si, Ge and LED:

a. I‐V at different te mperatures,

b. C‐V at room temperature and determination of barrier height.

2. Schottky diode and MOS diode Fabrication

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3. Determination of carrier concentration and barrier height from C‐V

measurements

4. I‐V characteristics and identification of the current conducti on

mechanisms

5. Determination oxide charge, carrier concentration and interface states

of from C‐V measurements.

6. Solar Cells: I‐V characteristics and spectral response

7. Semiconductor lasers‐ Study of output characteristics and

determination of threshold current, differential quantum efficiency and

divergence.

8. Infrared detector characteristics and spectral response.

9. Optical fibers‐ Attenuation and dispersion measurements.

10. Gunn diode characteristics.

11. Determination of surface concentration and junction depth of diffused

silicon wafers by four point probe method.

X. Experiments using Phoenix kit

XI. Astronomy and Space Physics

1. The temperature of an artificial star by photometry.

2. Study of the solar limb darkening effect.

3. Polar aligning an astronomical telescope .

4. Study of the atmospheric extinction for different colors.

5. Study the effective temperature of stars by B‐V photometry.

6. Estimate of the night sky brightness with a photometer.

XII. Computation

1. Computer program for file handling

XIII. Any one classical E xperiment (available in department or affiliated institutions)

1. Millikan’s oil‐drop method,

2. Raman effect in liquids,

3. e/m by Thomson’s method

4. Rydberg’s constant using constant deviation prism.

XIV. Advanced Statistical Mechanics

1. Numerical simulation of random walk

2. Videogrammatic measurements of brownian motion and determination of

Boltzmann constant

3. Numerical simulation of Ising model (equivalent to three experiments).

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B) Students offering electives PSPH405, 406, (i.e. Electronics I ),

The stude nt has to perform a minimum of 10 experiments from Group A and Group

B

Group A:

A1: Interfacing 8031/8051 based experiments :

(Any two experiments from 1, 2 & 3)

1. Interfacing 8 bit DAC with 8031/51 to generate waveforms: square, sawtooth,

triangular.

2. Interfacing stepper motor with 8031/51: t o control direction, speed and number

of steps .

3. Interface 8 -bit ADC (0804) with 8031/51: to convert an analog signal into its

binary equivalent.

A2: Interfacing (16F84 or 16FXXX) PIC Micro -controller based experiments (Using

assembly language only) :

(Any two experiments from 1, 2 & 3)

1. Interfacing Opto -Couplers: using as input and output .

2. Interfacing 7 -Segment Display in the multiplexing mode: to display a two -digit

number .

3. Use of built -in ADC or Interface 8 -bit ADC (0804): converting an analog signal into

its binary equivalent by using built -in ADC of the PIC micro -controller. OR Interface

an 8 -bit ADC 0804 to the PIC micro -controller and convert an analog signal into its

binary equivalent .

Group B:

B1: Basic VHDL experiments : (Any two experiments from 1, 2, & 3. )

1a. Write VHDL programs to realize: logic gates, half adder and full adder

1b. Write VHDL programs to realize the following combinational designs:

2 to 4 decoder, 8 to 3 encoder without priority, 4 to 1 multiplexer, 1 to 4 de -

multiplexer

2. Write VHDL programs to realize the following: SR – Flip Flop, JK – Flip Flop, T – Flip

Flop

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3. Write a VHDL program to realize a 2/3/4 - bit ALU (2 - arithmetic,2 -logical

operations)

B2: VHDL Interfacing based experiments : (Any two experiments from 1, 2, & 3. )

1. Interfacing stepper motor: writeVHDL code to co ntrol direction, speed and

number of steps .

2. Interfacing dc motor: write VHDL code to control direction and speed using PWM .

3. Interfacing relays: write VHDL code to control ac bulbs (at least two) using relays .

B3: ARM7 based experiments : (Any two experiments from 1, 2, 3 & 4 )

1. Simple data manipulation programs (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division

etc).

2. Study of IN and OUT port of ARM7 by Interfacing switches, LEDs etc.

3. Study of Timer.

4. Interfacing DAC/ADC using I2C Protocols.

References:

1. Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals by a K Ray and K M

Bhurchandi Second Edition Tata McGraw –Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

2. ARM System‐on‐Chip Architecture, by Steve Furber, Second Edition,

Pearson

3. VHDL programming by example by Douglas L. P erry, Fourth edition,

Tata McGraw‐Hill

4. Manual of VHDL kit.

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C) Students offering electives PSPH407, 408, (i.e. Electronics II ), have to perform at

least 10 experiments out of following:

Experiments in Electronics Communication

1. Sample and hold circuit using FETs or CMOS switch IC CA 4016/4066 or

IC LF398.

2. Study of ADC‐DAC system using ADC 0804/0808 and DAC 0800/0808.

3. Flat top pulse amp. Modulation (PAM) using CMOS switch IC CA

4016/4066 FET.

4. Pulse width modulation (PWM) & pulse position modulation (PPM)

using IC565/ 555.

5. Time division multiplexing (TDM) using IC CA 4016/4066 or FET.

6. FSK modulator using IC 555 or PLL IC 565 and demodulation using PLL

IC 4046.

7. Study of PCM – Transmission and reception using CODEC IC.

8. Two channel analog multiplexer using CMOS switch

CA4016/CA4066/LF398.

9. PC to PC communication through serial port.

10. PC to PC communication through parallel port.

11. Study of Manchester coding and decoding using CODEC IC.

12. Experiments using Phoenix kit

13. Computation : Computer program for file handli ng

14. Any one classical Experiment (available in department or affiliated

institutions) e.g.

Millikan’s oil‐drop method,

Raman effect in liquids,

e/m by Thomson’s method

Rydberg’s constant using constant deviation prism.

References:

1. Op‐amp and linear ICs by R amakantGayakwad (3rd ed. 1993, Prentice

Hall of India).

2. Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller (6th ed., 1999,

Prentice Hall International, Inc.).

3. Op‐amp and linear integrated circuits by Coughlin and Driscoll (4th ed.

1992, Prentice Hall of India).

4. Integrate Circuits by K. R. Botkar (8th ed., Khanna Publishers, Delhi ).

5. Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits by

Sergio Franco (3rd ed., Tata McGraw Hill).

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6. Analog and Digital Communication Sy stems by Martin S. Roden (5th ed.,

Shroff Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.).

7. Microwaves by K. C. Gupta (New Age International Ltd.).

8. Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy and John Coolen (4th ed.,

Pearson Education).

9. Basic microwave techniques and laboratory manual by M. L. Sisodia

and G. S. Raghuvanshi (Wiley Eastern Ltd. 1987.).

10. Electronic communication systems by George Kennedy and Bernard

Davis (4th ed., Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi).

11. Digital communication systems by Haro ld Kolimbiris (Pearson Education

Asia).

12. Optical fiber communication by G. Keiser (3rd ed., McGraw Hill).

13. Digital signal processing demystified by James D. Broesch (Penram

International Publications, India).

14. The indispensable PC hardware book ‐ Hans‐Peter M essmer, Addison

Wesley (PEA).

15. Parallel port complete by Jan Axelson, (Penram International

Publications, India).

16. Serial port complete by Jan Axelson, (Penram International

Publications, India).

17. Innovative experiments using Phoenix by AjitkumarmIUACm New De lhi,

India.

Note:

1. Journal should be certified by the laboratory in‐charge only if the

student performs satisfactorily the minimum number of experiments as

stipulated above. Such students, who do not have certified journals, will not

be allowed to appear fo r the practical examinations.

M.Sc. (Physics) Projects

Semesters III and IV

Project evaluation guidelines

Every student will have to complete one project each in Semester III and

Semester IV with four credits (100 marks) each. Students can take one long

project (especially for SSP/SSE/Material Sc/Nanotechnology/Nuclear Physics

etc) or two short project (especi ally for EI /EII). However , for one long project

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students have to submit two separate project reports / dissertation consisting

of the problem definition, literature survey and current status, objectives,

methodology and some preliminary experimental work in Semester III and

actual experimental work, results and analysis in semester IV with four credits

each. Those who have opted for two separate projects will also have to submit

two separate project reports at each examination. The project can be a

theoret ical or experimental project, related to advanced topic, electronic

circuits, models, industrial project, training in a research institute, training of

handling a sophisticated equipments etc.

Maximum three students can do a joint project. Each one of the m will submit

a separate project report with details/part only he/she has done. However

he/she can in brief (in a page one or two) mention in Introduction section

what other group members have done. In case of electronic projects, use of

readymade electron ic kits available in the market should be avoided. The

electronics project / models should be demonstrated during presentation of

the project. In case a student takes training in a research institute/training of

handling sophisticate equipment, he/she shou ld mention in a report what

training he/she has got, which instruments he/she handled and their principle

and operation etc.

Each project will be of 100 marks with 50% by internal and 50% by external

evaluation.

The project report should be file bound/spi ral bound/hard bound and

should have following format

Title Page/Cover page

Certificate endorsed by Project Supervisor and Head of Department

Declaration

Abstract of the project

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Chapters of Content –

Introdu ction and Objectives of the project

Experimental/Theoretical Methodology/Circuit/Model etc. details

Results and Discussion if any

Conclusions

References

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Evaluation by External/Internal examiner will be based on following criteria:

(each semester)

Criteria Maximum

Marks

Literature Survey 05

Objectives/Plan of the project 05

Experimental/Theoretical methodology/Working condition of

project or model 10

Significance and originality of the study/Society application

and Inclusion of recent References 05

Depth of knowledge in the subject / Results and Discussions 10

Presentation 15

Maximum marks by External examiner 50

Maximum marks by internal examiner/guid e 50

Total marks 100