## Page 1

AC Item No. - 4.290

University of Mumbai

Syllabus for Semesters ‐ I to IV

Program ‐ M. Sc .

Course ‐Physics

(Credit Based Semester and Grading System

With effect from the academic year 2017‐18)

Page 1 of 112

AC Item No. - 4.290

University of Mumbai

Syllabus for Semesters ‐ I to IV

Program ‐ M. Sc .

Course ‐Physics

(Credit Based Semester and Grading System

With effect from the academic year 2017‐18)

Page 1 of 112

Course Stru cture & Distribution of Credits

M. Sc. in Physics Program consists of total 16 theory courses, total 6 practical lab courses and 2 projects spread over four semesters. Twelve theory courses and four practical lab

course are common and compulsory for all the students. Remaining f our theory courses

can be chosen from the list of elective courses offered by the institute. Two Lab courses

can be chosen from the elective lab courses offered by the institute. Each theory course

will be of 4 (four) credits, a each practical lab course will be of 4 (four) credits and a

each

project will be of 4 (four) credits. A project can be on theoretical physics, experimental physics, applied physics, development physics, computational physics or industrial

product development. A student earns 24 (twenty four) credits per semester and total 96

(ninety six) credits in four semesters. The course structure is as follows,

Theory Courses

Paper -1 Paper -2 Paper -3 Paper -4

Semester -I Mathematical

Methods Classical

Mechanics Quantum

Mechanics I Solid State

Physics

Semester -II Advanced

Electronics Electrodynamics Quantum

Mechanics -II Solid State

Devices

Semester -III Statistical

Mechanics Nuclear Physics Elective

Course -1 Elective

Course -2

Semester -IV Experimental

Physics Atomic and

Molecular Physics Elective

Course -3 Elective

Course -4

Practical Lab Courses

Semester -I Lab Course -1 Lab Course -2

Semester -II Lab Course -3 Lab Course -4

Semester -III Project -1 Elective Lab Course -1

Semester -IV Project -2 Elective Lab Course -2

The elective theory courses offered by PG Centers will be from the following list:

1. Nuclear Structure

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2. Experimental Te chniques in Nuclear Physics

3. Electronic structure of solids

4. Surfaces and Thin Films

5. Micro controllers and Interfacing

6. Embedded systems and RTOS

7. Signal Modulation and Transmission Techniques

8. Microwave Electronics, Radar and Optical Fiber Communication

9. Semiconductor Physics

10. Thin Film Physics and Techniques

11. Fundamentals of Materials Science

12. Nanoscience & Nanotechnology

13. Astronomy and Space Physic s

14. Laser Physics

15. Group Theory

16. Applied Thermodynamics

17. Quantum Field Theory

18. Nuclear Reactions

19. Particle Physics

20. Properties of Solids

21. Crystalline & Non -crystalline solids

22. Advanced Microprocessor and ARM -7

23. VHDL and communication Interface

24. Digital Communication Systems and Python Programming

25. Computer Networking

26. Physics of Semiconductor Devices

27. Semiconductor Technology

28. Materials and their applications

29. Energy Studies

30. Galactic & Extragalactic Astronomy

31. Plasma Physics

32. Liquid Crystals

33. Numerical Techniques

34. Polymer Physics

35. Non -linear Dynamics

36. Advanced Statistical Mechanics

Page 3 of 112

Only some electives will be offered by each PG centre. Every year different electives may be offered depending on the availability of experts in PG centre s.

Semester I

M.Sc. in Physics Program for Semester- I consists of four theory courses and two Practical

Lab course s. The details are as follows:

Theory C ourses (4): 16 hours per week (One lecture of one hour duration)

Theory Paper Subject Lectures(Hrs.) Credits

PSPH101 Mathematical Methods 60 04

PSPH102 Classical Mechanics 60 04

PSPH103 Quantum Mechanics -I 60 04

PSPH104 Solid State Physics 60 04

TOTAL 240 16

Practical lab courses (2 ): 16 hours per week

Practical Lab Course Practical Lab Sessions (Hrs) Credits

PSPHP101 120 04

PSPHP102 120 04

Semester II

M.Sc. in Physics Program for Semester- II consists of four theory courses and two Practical

Lab course s. The details are as follows:

Theory Courses (4): 16 hours per week (One lecture of one hour duration)

Theory Paper Subject Lectures(Hrs.) Credits

PSPH201 Advanced Electronics 60 04

PSPH202 Electrodynamics 60 04

PSPH203 Quantum Mechanics -II 60 04

PSPH204 Solid State Devices 60 04

TOTAL 240 16

Page 4 of 112

Practical lab course s (2): 16 hours per week

Practical Lab Course Practical Lab Sessions (Hrs) Credits

PSPHP201 120 04

PSPHP20 2 120 04

Semester III

M.Sc. in Physics Program for Semester- III consists of four theory courses, one

Practical Lab course and one Project course . The details are as follows:

Theory Courses (4): 16 hours per week (One lecture of one hour duration)

Theory Paper Subject Lectures( Hrs.) Credits

PSPH301 Statistical Mechanics 60 04

PSPH302 Nuclear Physics 60 04

* Elective Course 60 04

* Elective Course 60 04

TOTAL 240 16

*: To be chosen from the list below with odd- even number combination. Odd numbered

course will be paper -3 and even numbered course will be paper -4.

Theory Paper Subjects Lectures(Hrs.) Credits

PSPHET301 Nuclear Structures 60 04

PSPHET302 Nuclear Reactions 60 04

PSPHET303 Electronic Structures of Solids 60 04

PSPHET304 Surfaces and Thin Films 60 04

PSPHET305 Microcontrollers and Interfacing 60 04

PSPHET306 Embedded Systems and RTOS 60 04

PSPHET307 Signal Modulation and Transmission

Techniques 60 04

PSPHET308 Microwave Electronics, Radar and

Optical Fiber Communication 60 04

PSPHET309 Semiconductor Physics 60 04

PSPHET310 Thin Film Physics and Techniques 60 04

PSPHET311 Fundamentals of Material Science 60 04

PSPHET312 Nanoscience and nanotechnology 60 04

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PSPHET313 Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy 60 04

PSPHET314 Plasma Physics 60 04

PSPHET315 Group Theory 60 04

PSPHET316 Applied Thermodynamics 60 04

PSPHET317 Quantum Field Theory 60 04

PSPHET318 Non -linear Dynamics 60 04

Project (1) : 8 hours per week

Project Course Total Project Period (Hrs) Credits

PSPHP301 Project -3 120 04

Practical lab course (1): 8 hours per week

Practical Lab

Course Course Practical Lab Sessions

(Hrs) Credits

PSPHPAP302 Advanced Physics Lab -1 120 04

Semester IV

M.Sc. in Physics Program for Semester- IV consists of four theory courses, one

Practical Lab course and one Project course . The details are as follows:

Theory Courses (4): 16 hours per week (One lecture of one hour duration)

Theory Paper Subject Lectures(Hrs.) Credits

PSPH401 Experimental Physics 60 04

PSPH402 Atomic and Molecular

Physics 60 04

* Elective Course 60 04

* Elective Course 60 04

TOTAL 240 16

*: To be chosen from the list below with odd- even number combination. Odd numbered

course will be paper -3 and even numbered course will be paper -4.

Theory Paper Subjects Lectures(Hrs.) Credits

PSPHET 401 Experimental Techniques in Nuclear

Physics 60 04

PSPHET4 02 Particle Physics 60 04

Page 6 of 112

PSPHET4 03 Crystalline & Non -crystalline Solids 60 04

PSPHET4 04 Properties of Solids 60 04

PSPHET4 05 Advanced Microprocessor and ARM 7 60 04

PSPHET4 06 VHDL and Communication Interface 60 04

PSPHET4 07 Digital Communication Systems and

Python Programming 60 04

PSPHET4 08 Computer Networking 60 04

PSPHET4 09 Physics of Semiconductor Devices 60 04

PSPHET4 10 Semiconductor Technology 60 04

PSPHET4 11 Materials and their applications 60 04

PSPHET4 12 Energy Studies 60 04

PSPHET4 13 Astronomy and Space Physics 60 04

PSPHET4 14 LASER Physics 60 04

PSPHET4 15 Liquid Crystals 60 04

PSPHET4 16 Numerical Techniques 60 04

PSPHET4 17 Polymer Physics 60 04

PSPHET4 18 Advanced Statistical Mechanics 60 04

Project (1) : 8 hours per week

Project Course Total Project Period (Hrs) Credits

PSPHP 401 Project -4 120 04

Practical lab course (1): 8 hours per week

Practical Lab

Course Course Practical Lab Sessions

(Hrs) Credits

PSPHPAP 402 Advanced Physics Lab -2 120 04

Page 7 of 112

The candidate shall be awarded the degree of Master of Science in Physics (M. Sc. In

Physics) after completing the course and meeting all the evaluation criteria. The Elective

Course titles will appear in the statement of marks. When the elective courses are chosen from a particular specialization, the statement of marks shall also carry the

name of the specializatio ns as stated below. Courses selected in third semester for a

particular specialization are prerequisites for courses in fourth semester for that specialization.

No. Group of Elective

Courses Chosen Name appearing in the

Statement of Marks Name appearing in

the Degree Certificate

1 PSPHET301,PSPHET302

PSPHET401,PSPHET402 M.Sc. in Physics (Nuclear

Physics) M.Sc. in Physics

2 PSPHET303,PSPHET304

PSPHET403,PSPHET404 M.Sc. in Physics

(Solid State Physics) M.Sc. in Physics

3 PSPHET305,PSPHET306

PSPHET405,PSPHET406 M.Sc. in Physics

(Electronics -I) M.Sc. in Physics

4 PSPHET307,PSPHET308

PSPHET407,PSPHET408 M.Sc. in Physics

(Electronics -II) M.Sc. in Physics

5 PSPHET309,PSPHET310

PSPHET409,PSPHET410 M.Sc. in Physics

(Solid State Electronics) M.Sc. in Physics

6 PSPHET311,PSPHET312

PSPHET411,PSPHET404 M.Sc. in Physics

(Materials Science) M.Sc. in Physics

7 PSPHET311,PSPHET316

PSPHET411,PSPHET412 M.Sc. in Physics

(Materials for Energy Technology) M.Sc. in Physics

8 Any other combination

of courses M.Sc. in Physics M.Sc. in Physics

2. Scheme of Examination and Passing:

Page 8 of 112

1. This course will have 40% Term Work (TW) / Internal Assessment (IA) and 60%

External Assessment (University written examination of 2.5 Hours duration for each

course paper and practical examination of 4 Hours duration for each practical). All

external examinations will be held at the end of each semester and will be conducted

by the University as per the existing norms.

2. Term Work / Internal Assessment - IA (40%) and University examination (60%) - shall

have separate heads of passing. For Theory courses, internal assessment shall carry

40 marks and Semester -end examination shall carry 60 marks for each Theory

Course.

3. To pass, a student has to obtain minimum grade point E or above s eparately in the IA

and the external examination.

4. The University (external) examination for all Theory and Practical courses shall be

conducted at the end of each Semester and the evaluation of Project course and

Project Dissertation will be conducted at the end of the each Semester.

5. The candidates shall appear for external examination of 4 theory courses each

carrying 60 marks of 2.5 hours duration and 2 practical courses(1 Practical Course

and 1 Project Course in M.Sc. Part II) each carrying 100 marks at the end of each

semester.

6. The candidate shall prepare and submit for practical examination a certified Journal

based on the practical course carried out under the guidance of a faculty member with minimum number of experiments as specified in the syllabus for each group.

7. The candidate shall submit a Project Report / Dissertation for the Project Course at

the end of each semester as per the guidelines given on page 109 .

3. Standard of Passing for University Examinations:

As per ordinances and regulations prescribed by the University for semester based credit

and grading system.

4. Standard point scale for grading:

Marks Grade Points Grade Performance

80.00 and Above 10 O Outstanding

70 to 79.99 9 A+ Excellent

60 to 69.99 8 A Very Good

55 to 59.99 7 B+ Good

50 to 54.99 6 B Above Average

Page 9 of 112

45 to 49.99 5 C Average

40 to 44.99 4 D Pass

Less Than 40 1 F Fail

5. Grade Point Average (GPA) calculation:

1. GPA is calculated at the end of each semester after grades have been processed and after any grade s have been updated or changed. Individual assignments /

quizzes / surprise tests / unit tests / tutorials / practicals / project / seminars etc.

as prescribed by University are all based on the same criteria as given above. The

teacher should conver t his marking into the Quality -Points and Letter -Grade.

2. Performance of a student in a semester is indicated by a number called Semester Grade Point Average (SGPA). It is the weighted average of the grade points obtained in all the subjects registered by the student s

during the semester

𝑆𝐺𝑃𝐴 =∑𝐶𝑖𝑝𝑖 𝑖=1

∑𝐶𝑖𝑖=1

𝐶𝑖 = The number of credits earned in the 𝑖 Pth course of a semester.

𝑝𝑖 = Grade point earned in the 𝑖 Pth course

𝑖 = 1,2,….𝑛 represents number of courses for which the student is registered.

3. The Final remark grade will be decided on the basis of Cumulative Grade Point

Average (CGPA) which is weighted average of the grade point s obtained in all the

semesters registered by the learner.

𝐶𝐺𝑃𝐴 =∑𝐶𝑗𝑝𝑗 𝑗=1

∑𝐶𝑗𝑗=1

𝐶𝑗 = The number of credits earned in the 𝑗 Pth course up to the semester for which

the CGPA is calculated

𝑝𝑗 = Grade point earned in the 𝑗 Pth course *

𝑗 = 1,2,….𝑛 represents number of courses for which the student is registered up to

the semester for which the CGPA is calculated * : A letter Grade lower than E in a subject shall not be taken into consideration for the

calculation of CGPA

Page 10 of 112

The CGPA is rounded up to the two decimal places.

M.Sc. (Physics) Theory Courses

Semester – I

Semester -I: Paper -I:

Course no.: PSPH101: Mathematical Methods (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit -I

Complex Variables, Limits, Continuity, Derivatives, Cauchy -Riemann Equations,

Analytic functions, Harmonic functions, Eleme ntary functions: Exponential and

Trigonometric, Taylor and Laurent series, Residues, Residue theorem, Principal part

of the functions, Residues at poles, zeroes and poles of order m, Contour Integrals,

Evaluation of improper r eal integrals, improper integral involving Sines and Cosines,

Definite integrals involving sine and cosine functions.

Unit -II

Matrices, Eigenvalues and Eigen vectors, orthogonal, unitary and hermitian matrices,

Diagonalization of Matrices, Application s to Physics problems. Introduction to Tensor

Analysis, Addition and Subtraction of Tensors, summation convention, Contraction,

Direct Product, Levi- Civita Symbol

Unit -III

General treatment of second order linear differential equations with non -constant

coefficients, Power series solutions, Frobenius method, Legendre, Hermite and

Laguerre polynomials , Bessel equations , Nonhomogeneous equation – Green’s function,

Sturm -Liouville theory.

Page 11 of 112

Unit -IV

Integral transforms: three dimensional fourier transforms and its applications to PDEs

(Green function of Poisson’s PDE), convolution theorem, Parseval’s relation, Laplace

transforms, Laplace transform of derivatives, Inverse Laplace transform and

Convolution theorem, use of Laplace’s transform in solving differential equations.

Main references:

1. S. D. Joglekar, Mathematical Physics: The Basics, Universities Press 2005

2. S. D. Joglekar, Mathematical Physics: Advanced Topics, CRC Press 2007

3. M.L. Boas, Mathematical methods i n the Physical Sciences, Wiley India 2006

4. G. Arfken and H. J. Weber: Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Academic Press

2005

Additional references:

1. A.K. Ghatak, I.C. Goyal and S.J. Chua, Mathematical Physics, McMillan

1. A.C. Bajpai, L.R. Mustoe and D. Walker, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, John

Wiley

2. E. Butkov, Mathematical Methods, Addison- Wesley

3. J. Mathews and R.L. Walker, Mathematical Methods of physics

4. P. Dennery and A. Krzywicki , Mathematics for physicists

5. T. Das and S.K. Sharma, Mathematical methods in Classical and Quantum

Mechanics

6. R. V. Churchill and J.W. Brown, Complex variables and ap plications, V Ed. Mc Graw.

Hill

7. A. W.Joshi, Matrices and Tensors in Physics, Wiley India

Semester -I: Paper -II:

Course no.: PSPH102: Classical Mechanics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit‐I

Review of Newton’s laws, Mechanics of a particle, Mechanics of a system of particles,

Frames of references, rotating frames, Centrifugal and Coriolis force, Constraints, D’Alembert’s pri nciple and Lagrange’s equations, Velocity -dependent potentials and the

dissipation function, Simple applications of the Lagrangian formulation. Hamilton’s principle, Calculus of variations, Derivation of Lagrange’s equations from Hamilton’s principle, Lagr ange Multipliers and constraint exterimization p roblems, Extension of

Page 12 of 112

Hamilton’s principle to nonholonomic systems, Advantages of a va riational principle

formulation

Unit‐II

Conservation theorems and symmetry properties, Energy Function and the conservatio n

of energy. The Two -Body Central Force Problem : Reduction to the equivalent one body

problem, The equations of motion and first integrals, The equivalent one- dimensional

problem and classification of orbits, The virial theorem, The differential equation for the

orbit and integrable power -law potentials , The Kepler problem : Inverse square law of

force, The motion in time in the Kepler problem, Scattering in a central force field, Transformation of the scattering problem to laboratory coordinates.

Unit‐III

Small Oscillations: Formulation of the problem, The eigenvalue equation and the principal axis transformation, Frequencies of free vibration and normal coordinates,

Forced and damped oscillations, Resonance and beats.

Legendre transformations and the Hamilton equations of motion, Cyclic coordinates and conservation theorems, Derivation of Hamilton’s equations from a variational principle.

Unit‐IV

Canonical Transformations, Examples of canonical transformations, The symplectic

approach to canonical transformations, Pois son brackets and other canonical inv ariants,

Equations of motion, infinitesimal canonical transformations and conservation theorems in the Poisson bracket formulation, The angular momentum Poisson bracket relations.

Main Reference: Classical Mechanics, H. Goldstein, Poole and Safk o, 3

rd Edition, Narosa

Publication (2001)

Additional References:

1. Classical Mechanics, N. C. Rana and P. S. Joag. Tata McGraw Hill Publication.

2. Classical Mechanics, S. N. Biswas, Allied Publishers (Calcutta).

3. Classical Mechanics, V. B. Bhatia, Narosa Publishing (1997).

4. Mechanics, Landau and Lifshitz, Butterworth, Heinemann.

5. The Action Principle in Physics, R. V. Kamat, New Age Intnl. (1995).

6. Classical Mechanics, Vol I and II, E. A. Deslougue, John Wiley (1982).

7. Theory and Problems of Lagrangian Dynamics, Schaum S eries, McGraw (1967).

8. Classical Mechanics of Particles and Rigid Bodies, K. C. Gupta, Wiley Eastern (2001)

Page 13 of 112

Semester -I : Paper -III:

Course No: PSPH103: Quantum Mechanics -I (60 lectures, 4 Credits)

Unit I

1. Review of concepts:

Postulates of quantum mechanics, observables and operators, measurements, state

function and expectation values, the time- dependent Schrodinger equation, time

development of state functions, solution to the initial value problem. The Superposition

principle, commutator relations, their c onnection to the uncertainty principle, complete

set of commuting observables. Time development of expectation values, conservation

theorem s and parity.

2. Formalism :

Linear Vector Spaces and operators, Dirac notation, Hilbert space, Hermitian operators

and their properties, Matrix mechanics: Basis and representations, unitary

transformations, the energy representation. Schrodinger, Heisenberg and interaction

picture.

Unit II

1. Wave packet: Gaussian wave packet, Fourier transform.

2. Schrodinger equation solution s: one dimensional problems:

General properties of one dimensional Schrodinger equation, Particle in a box, Harmonic oscillator by raising and lowering operators and Frobenius method,

unbound states, one dimensional barrier problems, finite potential well .

Unit III

Schrodinger equation solutions: Three dimensional problems:

Orbital angular momentum operators in cartesian and spherical polar coordinates,

commutation and uncertainty relations, spherical harmonics, two particle problem -

coordinates relative to centre of mass, radial equation for a spherically symmetric central

potential, hydrogen atom, eigenvalues and radial eigenfunctions, degeneracy, probability

distribution.

Unit IV Angular Momentum:

Page 14 of 112

1. Ladder operators, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of L2 and L z using spherical

harmonics, angular momentum and rotations.

2. Total angular momentum J; LS coupling; eigenvalues of J2 and Jz.

3. Addition of angular momentum, coupled and uncoupled representation of

eigenfunctions, Clebsch Gordan coefficient for j 1 = j 2 = ½ and j 1 =1 and j 2 = ½.

4. Angular momentum matrices, Pauli spin matrices, spin eigenfunctions, free particle wave function including spin, addition of two spins.

Main references:

1. Richard Liboff, Introductory Quantum Mechanics, 4

th edition, Pearson.

2. D J Gr iffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 4th edition

3. A Ghatak and S Lokanathan, Quantum Mechanics: Theory and Applications, 5th

edition.

4. N Zettili, Quantum Mechanics: Concepts and Applications, 2nd edition, Wiley.

Additional References

1. W Greiner, Quantum Mechanics: An introduction, Springer, 2004

2. R Shankar, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Springer, 1994

3. P.M. Mathews and K. Venkatesan, A Textbook of Quantum Mechanics, Tata

McGraw Hill (1977).

4. J. J. Sakurai Modern Quantum Mechanics, Addison -Wes ley (1994).

Semester -I : Paper -IV:

Course no.: PSPH1 04: Solid State Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit – I: Diffraction of Waves by Crystals and Reciprocal Lattice

Bragg law, Scattered Wave Amplitude – Fourier analysis, Reciprocal Lattice Vectors,

Diffraction Conditions, Brillouin Zones, Reciprocal Lattice to SC, BCC and FCC lattice.

Interference of Waves, Atomic Form Factor, Elastic Scattering by crystal, Ewald

Construction, Structure Factor, Temperature Dependence of the Reflection Lines, Experimental Techniq ues (Laue Method, Rotating Crystal Method, Powder Method)

Scattering from Surfaces, Elastic Scattering by amorphous solids.

Unit‐II: Lattice Vibrations and thermal properties:

Page 15 of 112

Vibrations of Monoatomic Lattice, normal mode frequencies, dispersion relatio n. Lattice

with two atoms per unit cell, normal mode frequencies, dispersion relation., Quanization

of lattice vibrations, phonon momentum, Inelastic scattering of neutrons by phonons,

Surface vibrations, Inelastic Neutron scattering. Anharmonic Crystal In teraction. Thermal

conductivity – Lattice Thermal Resistivity, Umklapp Process, Imperfections

Unit‐III: Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism:

Langevin diamagnetic equation, diamagnetic response, Quantum mechanical

formulation, core diamagnetism. Quantum Theory of Paramagnetism, Rare Earth Ions,

Hund’s Rule, Iron Group ions, Crystal Field Splitting and Quenching of orbital angular

momentum; Adiabatic Demagnetisation of a paramagnetic Salt, Paramagnetic

susceptibility of conduction electrons;

Unit‐IV: Magnetic Ord ering:

Ferromagnetic order - Exchange Integral, Saturation magnetisation, Magnons, neutron

magnetic scattering; Ferrimagnetic order, spinels, Yttrium Iron Garnets, Anti

Ferromagnetic order. Ferromagnetic Domains – Anisotropy energy, origin of domains,

trans ition region between domains, Bloch wall, Coercive force and hysteresis.

Main References: -

1. Charles Kittel “Introduction to Solid State Physics”, 7th edition John Wiley & sons.

2. J.Richard Christman “Fundamentals of Solid State Physics” John Wiley & sons

3. M.A.Wahab “Solid State Physics – Structure and properties of Materials” Narosa

Publications 1999.

4. M. Ali Omar “Elementary Solid State Physics” Addison Wesley (LPE)

5. H.Ibach and H.Luth 3rd edition “Solid State Physics – An Introduction to Principles of

Materi als Science” Springer International Edition (2004)

Page 16 of 112

M.Sc. (Physics) Practical Lab Course

Semester – I

Semester – I Lab-1

Course number: PSPHP101 (120 hours, 4 credits)

Group A

Experiment Reference Books

1 Michelson Interferometer Advanced Practical Physics - Worsnop

and Flint

2 Analysis of sodium spectrum a Atomic spectra - H.E. White

b Experiments in modern physics –

Mellissinos

3 h/e by vacuum photocell a Advance practical physics - Worsnop

and Flint

b Experiments in modern P hysics –

Mellissinos

4 Study of He- Ne laser -

Measurement of divergence and

wavelength a A course of experiments with Laser -

Sirohi

b Elementary experiments with Laser -

G. White

5 Susceptibility measurement by

Quincke's method /Guoy’s

balance method Advance practical physics - Worsnop

and Flint

6 Absorption spectrum of specific

liquids Advance practical physics - Worsnop

and Flint

7 Coupled Oscillation s HBCSE Selection camp 2007 Manual

Page 17 of 112

Group B:

Experiment References

1 , Diac ‐ Triac phase control circuit a) Solid state devices- W.D. Cooper

b) Electronic text lab manual - P.B. Zbar

2. Delayed linear sweep using 1C 555 a) Electronic Principles - A. P. Malvino

3. Regulated power supply using 1C LM 317

voltage regulator IC a) Opeational amplifiers and linear

Integrated circuits - Coughlin & Driscoll

b) Practical analysis of electronic circuits

through experimentation - L.MacDonald

4. Regulated dual power supply using IC LM

317 & 1C LM 337 voltage regulator ICs a) Opeational amplifiers and linear

Integrated circuits - Coughlin & Driscoll

b) Practical analysis of electronic circuits

through experimentation - L.MacDona ld

5. Constant current supply using IC 741 and

LM317 Integrated Circuits - K. R. Botkar

6. Active filter circuits (second order) a) Op- amps and linear integrated circuit

technology - R. Gayakwad

b) Operational amplifiers and linear

integrated circuits - Coughlin &. Driscoll

7. Study of 4 digit multiplex display system Digital Electronics - Roger Tokheim

Note: Minimum number of experiments to be performed and reported in the journal =

06 with minimum 3 experiments from each Group. i.e. Group A: 03 and Group B: 03

Page 18 of 112

Semester – I Lab-2

Course number: PSPHP102 (120 hours, 4 credits)

Group A

Experiment References

1. Carrier lifetime by pulsed reverse

method Semiconductor electronics by Gibson

2. Resistivity by four probe method Semiconductor measurements by Runyan

3. Temperature dependence of

avalanche and Zener breakdown diodes a) Solid state devices - W.D. Cooper

b) Electronic text lab manual - PB Zbar

c) Electronic devices & circuits - Millman

and Halkias

4. DC Hall effect a) Manual of experimental physics -

E.V.Smith

b) Semiconductor Measurements - Runyan

c) Semiconductors and solid state physics -

Mackelvy

d) Handbook of semiconductors – Hunter

5. Determination of particle size of

lycopodium particles by laser

diffraction method a) A course of experiments with Laser -

Sirohi

b) Elementary experiments with Laser - G.

White

6. Magneto resistance of Bi specimen Semiconductor measurements by Runyan

7. Microwave oscillator characteristics a) Physics of Semiconductor Devices by

S.M.Sze

Page 19 of 112

Group B:

Experiment References

1. Temperature on- off

controller using IC a) Op-amps and linear integrated circuit technology by

Gayakwad

2. Waveform Generator using

ICs a) Operational amplifiers and linear integrated circuits -

— Coughlin & Driscoll

b) Op-amps and linear integrated circuit technology : R.

Gayakwad

c) Opertional amplifiers : experimental manual C.B.

Clayton

3. Instrumentation amplifier

and its applications a) Operational amplifiers and linear integrated circuits -

Coughlin &. Driscoll

b) Integrated Circuits - K. R. Botkar

4. Study of 8 bit DAC a) Op-amps and linear integrated circuit technology —

R. Gayakwad

b) Digital principles and applications by Malvino and

Leach

5. 16 channel digital multiplexer a) Digital principles and applications by Malvino and

Leach

b) Digital circuit practice by RP Jain

6. Study of elementary digital

voltmeter Digital Electronics by Roger Tokheim (5th Ed, page 371)

Note: Minimum number of experiments to be performed and reported in the journal =

06 with minimum 3 experiments from each Group. i.e. Group A: 03 and G roup B: 03

Additional references:

1. Digital theory and experimentation using integrated circuits - Morris E. Levine (Prentice

Hall)

2. Practical analysis of electronic circuits through experiment ation - Lome Macronaid

(Technical Education Press)

3. Logic design projects using standard integrated circuits - John F. Waker (John Wiley &

sons)

4. Practical applications circuits handbook - Anne Fischer Lent & Stan Miastkowski

(Academic Press)

5. Digital logic d esign, a text lab manual - Anala Pandit (Nandu printers and publishers Pvt.

Ltd.)

Note:

1. Journal should be certified by the laboratory in- charge only if the student performs

satisfactorily the minimum number of experiments as stipulated above. Such students,

who do not have certified journals, will not be allowed to appear for the practical

examinations. 2.

Page 20 of 112

2. Total marks for the practical examinations = 200

M.Sc. (Physics) Theory Courses

Semester – II

Semester -II : Paper -I:

Course no.: PSPH201: Advanced Electronics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit‐I Microprocessors and Microcontrollers:

1. Microprocessors: Counters and Time Delays, Stack and Sub- routines

RSG: Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with the 8085 :

R. S. Gaonkar , 5th Edition, Penram International

2. Introduction to Microcontrollers: Introduction, Microcontrollers and

Microprocessors, History of Microcontrollers and Microprocessors, Embedded

versus External Memory Devices, 8 –bit and 16–bit Microcontrollers, CISC and

RISC Processors, Harvard and Von Neumann Architectures, Commercial

Microcontroller Devices.

AVD: Ch.1

3. 8051 Microcontrollers: Introduction, MCS –51 Architecture, Registers in MCS -51,

8051 Pin Description, Connections, 8051 Parallel I/O Ports and Memory

Organization. AVD: Ch. 2, 3

4. 8051 Instruction set and Programming: MCS -51 Addressing Modes and

Instruction set. 8051 Instructions and Simple programs using Stack Pointer .

AVD: Ch.4

Reference: AVD: Microcontrollers (Theory and Applications) by Ajay V. Deshmu kh, TMH

Unit‐II Analog and Data Acquisition Systems:

1. Power Supplies : Linear Power supply, Switch Mode Power supply, Uninterrupted

Power Supply, Step up and Step down Switching Voltage Regulators.

2. Inverters: Principle of voltage driven inversion, Principle of current driven

inversion, sine wave inverter, Square wave inverter.

3. Signal Conditioning: Operational Amplifier, Instrumentation Amplifier using IC,

Precision Rectifier, Voltage to Current Converter, Current to Voltage Converter,

Op-Amp Based Butterworth Higher Order Active Filters and Multiple Feedback

Filters, Voltage Controlled Oscillator , Analog Multiplexer, Sample and Hold

circuits, Analog to Digital Converters, Digital to Analog Converters.

Page 21 of 112

Unit‐III Data Transmissions, Instrumentations Circuits& Designs:

1. Data Transmission Systems : Analog and Digital Transmissions, Pulse Amplitude

Modulation, Pulse Width Modulation, Time Division Multiplexing, Pulse

Modulation, Digital Modulation, Pulse Code Format, Modems.

2. Optical Fib er: Introduction to optical fibers, wave propagation and total internal

reflection in optical fiber, structure of optical fiber, Types of optical fiber,

numerical aperture, acceptance angle, single and multimode optical fibers, optical

fiber materials and fabrication, attenuation, dispersion, splicing and fiber

connectors, fiber optic communication system, fiber sensor, optical sources and

optical detectors for optical fiber.

Unit‐IV Instr umentation Circuits and Designs:

Microprocessors/ Microcontrollers based D C motor speed controller.

Microprocessors /Microcontrollers based temperature controller. Electronic

weighing single pan balance using strain gauge/ load cell. Optical analog

communication system using fiber link. Electronic intensity meter using o ptical

sensor. IR remote controlled ON/OFF switch.

Reference Books:

1. Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with the

8085 R. S. Gaonkar, 4th Edition. Penram International.

2. The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems, Dr. Rajiv Kapadia, Jaico

Publishing House.

3. The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems by M.A. Mazidi, J.G. Mazidiand

R.D. Mckinlay

4. The 8051 Microcontroller: K.J.Ayala: Penram International

5. Programming & customizing the 8051 Mocrocontroller : Myke Predko, TMH

6. Power Electroni cs and its applications, Alok Jain, 2nd Edition, Penram

International India.

7. Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits - R. A. Gayakwad , 3rd Edition

Prentice Hall India.

8. Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits, Robert F. Coughlin and

Frederic F. Driscoll, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Asia.

9. Optical Fiber Communications, Keiser, G. Mcgraw Hill, Int. Student Ed.

10. Electronic Communication Systems; 4th. Ed. Kennedy and Davis, (Tata-

McGraw. Hill, 2004.

11. Electronic Instrumentation, H.S. Kalsi, Tata -McGraw. Hill, 1999

Page 22 of 112

Semester -II : Paper -II:

Course no.: PSPH202: Electrodynamics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit‐I:

Maxwell's equations, The Pointing vector, The Maxwellian stress tensor, Lorentz

Transformations, Four Vectors and Four Tensors, The field equations and the field

tensor, Maxwell equations in covariant notation.

Unit‐II:

Electromagnetic waves in vacuum, Polarization of plane waves. Electromagnetic waves

in matter, frequency dependence of conductivity, frequency dependence of

polarizability, frequency dependence of refractive index. Wave guides, boundary

conditions, classification of fields in wave guides, phase velocity and group velocity,

resonant cavities.

Unit‐III:

Moving charges in vacuum, gauge transformation, The time dependent Green function,

The Lienard- Wiechert potentials, Leinard- Wiechert fields, application to fields -radiation

from a charged particle, Antennas, Radiation by multipole moments, Electric dipole

radiation, Complete fields of a time dependent electric dipole, Magnetic dipole radiation

Unit‐IV:

Relativistic covariant Lagrangian formalism: Covariant Lagrangian formalism for

relativistic point charges. The energy -momentum tensor, Conservation laws.

Main Reference:

1. W.Greiner, Classical Electrodynamics (Springer- Verlag, 2000) (WG).

2. M.A. Heald and J.B. Marion, Classical Electromagnetic Radiation,

3rd edition (Saunders, 1983) (HM)

Additional references:

1. J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 4Th edition, (John Wiley & sons) 2005

(JDJ)

2. W.K.H. Panofsky and M. Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism,2nd edition, (

Addison - Wesley ) 1962.

3. D.J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics,2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, India,1989.

Page 23 of 112

4. J.R. Reitz ,E.J. Milford and R.W. Christy, Foundation of Electromagnetic Theory,

4th ed., Addiso n -Wesley, 1993

Semester -II : Paper -III:

Course no.: PSPH203: Quantum Mechanics -II (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Perturbation Theory:

Time independent perturbation theory: First order and second order corrections to the

energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Degenerate perturbation Theory: first order

correction to energy.

Time dependent perturbation theory: Harmonic perturbation, Fermi's Golden Rule, sudden and adiabatic approximations , applications.

Unit II: Approximation Methods

1. Variation Method: Basic principle, applications to simple potential problems, He -

atom.

2. WKB Approximation: WKB approximation, turning points, connection formulas,

Quantization conditions, applications.

Unit III: scattering Theory

Laboratory and centre of mass frames, differential and total scattering cross- sections,

scattering amplitude, Partial wave analysis and phase shifts, optical theorem, S -wave

scattering from finite spherical attractive and repulsive potential wells, Born

approximation.

Unit IV

1. Identical Par ticles: Symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions, Bosons and

Fermions, Pauli Exclusion Principle , slater determinant.

2. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

3. The Klein Gordon and Dirac equations. Dirac matrices, spinors, positive and

negative energy solutions phy sical interpretation. Nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac

equation.

Main references:

1. Richard Liboff, Introductory Quantum Mechanics, 4th edition, Pearson.

2. D J Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 4th edition

3. A Ghatak and S Lokanathan, Quantum Mechanics: Theory and Applications, 5th

edition.

4. N Zettili, Quantum Mechanics: Concepts and Applications, 2nd edition, Wiley.

Page 24 of 112

5. J. Bjorken and S. Drell, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, McGraw -Hill (1965).

Additional References

1. W Greiner, Quantum Mechanics: An introduction, Springer, 2004

2. R Shankar, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Springer, 1994

3. P.M. Mathews and K. Venkatesan, A Textbook of Quantum Mechanics, Tata

McGraw Hill (1977).

4. J.J. Sakurai Modern Quantum Mechanics, Addison- Wessley (1994).

Semester -II : Paper -III:

Course no.: PSPH2 04: Solid State Devices (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Note: Problems form an integral part of the course.

Unit‐I: Semiconductor Physics:

Classification of Semiconductors; Crystal structure with examples of Si, Ge & GaAs

semiconductors; Energy band structure of Si, Ge & GaAs; Extrinsic and compensated Semiconductors; Temperature dependence of Fermi -energy and carrier concentration.

Drift, diffusion and injection of carriers; Carrier generation and recombination

proce sses- Direct recombination, Indirect recombination, Surface recombination, Auger

recombination; Applications of continuity equation- Steady state injection from one side,

Minority carriers at surface, Haynes Shockley experiment, High field effects. Hall Effect ;

Four – point probe resistivity measurement; Carrier life time measurement by light pulse

technique.

Unit‐II: Semiconductor Devices I:

p-n junction : Fabrication of p- n junction by diffusion and ion- implantation; Abrupt and

linearly graded junctions; Thermal equilibrium conditions; Depletion regions; Depletion

capacitance, Capacitance – voltage (C -V) characteristics, Evaluation of impurity

distribution, Varactor; Ideal and Practical Current -voltage (I -V) characteristics; Tunneling

and avalanche reverse junction break down mechanisms; Minority carrier storage,

diffusion capacitance, transient behavior; Ideality factor and carrier concentration

measurements; Carrier life time measurement by reverse recovery of junction diode;; p-

i-n diode; Tunnel diode, I ntroduction to p- n junction solar cell and semiconductor laser

diode.

Unit‐III: Semiconductor Devices II:

Page 25 of 112

Metal – Semiconductor Contacts: Schottky barrier – Energy band relation, Capacitance-

voltage (C- V) characteristics, Current- voltage (I- V) characteristics; Ideality factor, Barrier

height and carrier concentration measurements; Ohmic contacts. Bipolar Junction

Transistor (BJT): Static Characteristics; Frequency Response and Switching.

Semiconductor heterojunctions, Heterojunction bipolar transistors, Qu antum well

structures.

Unit‐IV: Semiconductor Devices III:

Metal- semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET)- Device structure, Principles of

operation, Current voltage (I -V) characteristics, High frequency performance.

Modulation doped field effect transistor (MODFET); Introduction to ideal MOS device;

MOSFET fundamentals, Measurement of mobility, channel conductance etc. from I ds vs,

Vds and I ds vs V g characteristics. Introduction to Integrated circuits.

Main References:

1. S.M. Sze; Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology, 2nd edition, John Wiley,

New York, 2002.

2. B.G. Streetman and S. Benerjee; Solid State Electronic Devices, 5th edition, Prentice

Hall of India, NJ, 2000.

3. W.R. Runyan; Semiconductor Measurements and Instrumentation, McGraw Hil l,

Tokyo, 1975.

4. Adir Bar -Lev: Semiconductors and Electronic devices, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall,

Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984.

Additional References:

1. Jasprit Singh; Semiconductor Devices: Basic Principles, John Wiley, New York, 2001.

2. Donald A. Neamen; Sem iconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 3rd edition,

Tata McGraw -Hill, New Delhi, 2002.

3. M. Shur; Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1995.

4. Pallab Bhattacharya; Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices, Prentice Hall o f India,

New Delhi, 1995.

5. S.M. Sze; Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd edition, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New

Delhi, 1985.

Page 26 of 112

M.Sc. (Physics) Practical Lab Course

Semester – II

Semester – II Lab -1

Course number: PSPHP201 (120 hours, 4 credits)

Group A

Experiment References

1 . Zeeman Effect using Fabry -Perot

etalon /Lummer — Gehrecke plate a). Advance practical physics - Worsnop and Flint

b). Experiments in modern physics - Mellissinos

2. Characteristics of a Geiger Muller

counter and measurement of dead

time a). Experime nts in modern physics:M ellissions

b). Manual of experimental physics -- EV-Smith

c). Experimental physics for students - Whittle &.

Yarwood

3. Ultrasonic Interferometry -Velocity

measurements in different Fluids Medical Electronics - Khandpur

4.Measurement of Refractive Index of

Liquids using Laser Sirohi -A course of experiments with He- Ne

Laser; Wiley Eastern Ltd

5.I-V/ C -V measurement on

semiconductor specimen Semiconductor measurements - Runyan

6.Double slit- Fraunhofer diffraction

(missing order etc.) Advance practical physics - Worsnop and Flint

7.Determination of Young’s modulus

of metal rod by interference method Advance practical physics - Worsnop and Flint

(page 338)

Page 27 of 112

Group B

Experiment Reference

1.Adder -subtractor circuits using ICs a)Digital Principles and applications -Malvino

and Leach

b)Digital circuit practice -R.P.Jain

2.Study of Presettable counters -

74190 and 74193 a) Digital circuit practice -Jain & Anand

b) Digital Principles and applications -Malvino

and Leach

c)Experiments in digital practice -Jain & Anand

3.TTL characteristics of Totempole,

Open collector and tristate devices a) Digital circuit practice -Jain & Anand

b) Digital Principles and applications -Malvino

and Leach

4. Pul se width modulation for speed

control of dc toy motor Electronic Instrumentation - H. S. Kalsi

5. Study of sample and hold circuit Integrated Circuits - K. R. Botkar

6. Switching Voltage Regulator

Note: Minimum number of experiments to be performed and reported in the journal =

06 with minimum 3 experiments from each Group. i.e. Group A: 03 and Goup B: 03

Page 28 of 112

Semester – II Lab -2

Course number: PSPHP202 (120 hours, 4 credits)

Group A

Experiment References

1. Carrier mobility by conductivity Semiconductor electronics - Gibson

2. Measurement of dielectric

constant, Curie temperature and

verification of Curie— Weiss law for

ferroelectric material a) Electronic instrumentation & measurement :

W. D. Cooper

b) Introduction to solid state physics - C. Kittel

c) Solid state physics — A. J. Dekkar

3. Barrier capacitance of a junction

diode Electronic engineering - Millman Halkias

4. Linear Voltage Differential

Transformer Electronic Instrumentation - W.D. Cooper

5.Faraday Effect- Magneto Optic

Effec t:

a) To Calibrate Electromagnet

b) To determine Verdet's constant

for KCI & KI solutions. a)Manual of experimental physics : E.V. Smith

b) . Experimental physics for students : Whittle &

Yarwood

6. Energy Band gap by four probe

method Semiconductor measurements — Runyan

7. Measurement of dielectric

constant(Capacitance)

Page 29 of 112

Group B

Experiment References

1. Shift registers a) Experiments in digital principles -D.P. Leach

b) Digital principles and applications - Malvino and

Leach

2. Study of 8085

microprocessor Kit and

execution of simple

Programmes a) Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and

Applications with the 8085 - R. S. Gaonkar

b) Microprocessor fundamentals- Schaum Series -

Tokheim

c) 8085 Kit User manual

3. Waveform generation using

8085 a) Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and

Applications with the 8085 - R. S. Gaonkar

b) Microprocessor fundamentals- Schaum Series -

Tokheim

4. SID& SOD using 8085 a) Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and

Applications with the 8085 - R. S. Gaonkar

b) Microprocessor fundamentals- Schaum Series -

Tokheim

c) 8085 Kit User manual

5. Ambient Light control power

switc h a)Electronic Instrumentation H. S. Kalsi

b)Helfrick & Cooper, PHI

6. Interfacing TTL with buzzers,

relays, motors and solenoids Digital Electronics by Roger Tokheim

Note: Minimum number of experiments to be performed and reported in the journal =

06 with minimum 3 experiments from each Group. i.e. Group A: 03 and Goup B: 03

Additional references:

1. Digital theory and experimentation using integrated circuits - Morris E. Levine

(Prentice Hall)

2. Practical analysis of electronic circuits through experimentation - Lome Macronaid

(Technical Education Press)

3. Logic design projects using standard integrated circuits - John F. Waker (John Wiley

& sons)

4. Practical applications circuits handbook - Anne Fischer Lent & Stan Miastkowski

(Academic Press)

Page 30 of 112

5. Digital logic design, a text lab manual - Anala Pandit (Nandu printers and pu blishers

Pvt. Ltd.)

Note:

1. Journal should be certified by the laboratory in- charge only if the student

performs satisfactorily the minimum number of experiments as stipulated above.

Such students, who do not have certified journals, will not be allowed to appear

for the practical examinati ons.

2. Total marks for the practical examinations = 200

Page 31 of 112

M.Sc. (Physics) Theory Courses

Semester – III

Semester -III : Paper -I:

Course no.: PSPH301: Statistical Mechanics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit – I

The Statistical Basis of Thermodynamics - The macroscopic and the microscopic states,

contact between statistics and thermodynamics, the classical ideal gas, The entropy of

mixing and the Gibbs paradox, the enumeration of the microstates

Elements of Ensemble Theory - Phase space of a classical system , Liouville’s theorem

and its consequences.

The microcanonical ensemble - Examples

Quantum states and the phase space

Unit – II

The Canonical Ensemble - Equilibrium between a system and a heat reservoir, a system

in the canonical ensemble, physical significance of the various statistical quantities in

the canonical ensemble, expressions of the partition function, the classical systems,

energy fluctuations in the canonical ensemble, correspondence with the microcanonical

ensemble, the equipartition theorem and the virial theorem, system of harmonic

oscillators, statistics of paramagnetism, thermodynamics of magnetic systems.

Unit – III

The Grand Canonical Ensemble - Equilibrium between a system and a parti cle-energy

reservoir, a system in the grand canonical ensemble, physical significance of the various statistical quantities, Examples, Density and energy fluctuations in the grand canonical

ensemble, correspondence with other ensembles.

Unit – IV

Formula tion of Quantum Statistics - Quantum -mechanical ensemble theory: the density

matrix, Statistics of the various ensembles, Examples, systems composed of

indistinguishable particles , the density matrix and the partition function of a system of

free particles .

Note

: 50% of time allotted for lectures to be spent in solving problems.

Page 32 of 112

Textbook/Main Reference:

Statistical Mechanics - R. K. Pathria & Paul D. Beale(Third Edition), Elsevier 2011 – Chap.

1 to 5

Additional References :

1. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, Greiner, Neise and Stocker, Springer

1995.

2. Introduction to Statistical Physics, Kerson Huang , Taylor and Francis 2001.

3. Thermal and Statistical Physics, F Reif.

4. Statistical Physics, D Amit and Walecka.

5. Statistical Mechanics, Kerson Huang.

6. Statistical Mechanics, J.K. Bhattacharjee.

7. Non -equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, J.K. Bhattacharjee.

8. Statistical Mechanics, Richard Feynman.

9. Statistical Mechanics, Landau and Lifshitz.

10. Thermodynamics, H.B. Callen

Semester -III : Paper -II:

Course no.: PSPH302: Nuclear Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I. (12 Lectures + 3 Tutorials)

All static properties of nuclei (charge, mass, binding energy, size, shape, angular

momentum, magnetic dipole momentum, electric quadrupole momentum, statistics,

parity, isospin), Measurement of Nuclear size and estimation of R 0 (mirror nuclei and

mesonic atom method) Q-value equation, energy release in fusion and fission reaction.

Deuteron Problem and its ground state properties , Estimate the depth and size of

(assume) square well potential, Tensor force as an example of non- central force,

nucleon- nucleon scattering -qualitative discussion on results, Spin -orbit strong

interaction between nucleon, double scattering experiment.

*Tutorials should include 3 problem solving session based on above mentioned topics

Unit II. (11 Lectures + 4 Tutorials)

Page 33 of 112

Review of alpha decay, Introduction to Beta decay and its energetic, Fermi theory :

derivation of Fermi's Golden rule, Information from Fermi –curie plots, Comparative half -

lives , selection rules for Fermi and G -T transitions.

Gamma decay : Multipole radiation, Selection rules for gamma ray transitions,

Gamma ray interaction with matter, and Charge- particle interaction with matter.

*Tutorials should include 4 problem solving session based on above mentioned topics

Unit III . (11 Lectures + 4 Tutorials)

1. Nuclear Models : Shell Model (extreme single particle): Introduction, Assumptions,

Evidences, Spin- orbit interactions, Predictions including Schmidt lines, limitations,

Collective model - Introduction to Nilsson Model.

2. Nuclear Reactions : Kinematics, scattering and reaction cross sections, Compound

nuclear reaction, direct nuclear reaction.

*Tutorials should include 4 problem solving sess ion based on above mentioned topics

Unit IV. (11 Lectures + 4 Tutorials)

Introduction to the elementary particle Physics, The Eight fold way, the Quark Model,

the November revolution and aftermath, The standard Model, Revision of the four

forces, cross sections, decays and resonances, Introduction to Quantum Eletrodynamics,

Introduction to Quantum Chromodynamics. Weak interactions and Unification Schemes

(qualitative description), Revision of Lorentz transformations, Four- vectors, Energy and

Momentum. Properties of Neutrino, helicity of Neutrino, Parity, Qualitative discussion

on Parity violation in beta decay and Wu’s Experiment, Charge conjugation, Time

reversal, Qualitative introduction to CP violation and TCP theorem.

*Tutorials should include 4 probl em solving session based on above mentioned topics

Main References:

1. Introductory Nuclear Physics, Kenneth Krane, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.

2. Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles, Robert Eisberg

and Robert Resnick, Wiley (2006)

3. Introduction to Elementary Particles, David Griffith, John Wiley and sons.

Other References:

1. Introduction to Nuclear Physics, H. A. Enge, Eddison Wesley

2. Nuclei and Particle s, E. Segre, W. A. Benjamin

3. Concepts of Nuclear Physics, B. L. Cohen

4. Subatomic Parti cles, H. Fraunfelder and E. Henley, Prentice Hall

Page 34 of 112

5. Nuclear Physics : Experimental and Theoretical, H. S. Hans, New Age International

6. Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics, A. Das & T. Ferbel, World Scientific

7. Introduction to high energy physics, D. H . Perkins, Addison Wesley

8. Nuclear and Particle Physics, W. E. Burcham and M. Jones, Addison Wesley

9. Introductory Nuclear Physics, S. M. Wong, Prentice Hall.

10. Nuclear Physics: An Introduction, S. B. Patel, New Age International.

11. Nuclear Physics : S. N . Ghoshal

12. Nuclear Physics: Roy and Nigam

Semester -III : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET301: Nuclear Structure (60 lectures, 4 credits)

UNIT I: Microscopic Models I (12 lectures + 3 tutorials)

Experimental evidence for shell effects, Concept of averag e potential, Spin -orbit

coupling, Single- particle shell structure, Predictions of the independent particle shell

model: spin- parity, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments; Isospin, Two -

and Multi - particle configurations, Residual interactions, P airing interactions: BCS

model.

UNIT II: Microscopic Models II (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

Fermi -Gas Model: symmetry, surface and Coulomb energy; Deformed shell model,

Nilsson Hamiltonian, Single -particle energies in a deformed potential, Shell corrections

and the Strutinski method, Hartree- Fock approximation: general variational principle,

Hartree- Fock equations and applications.

UNIT III: Collective models (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

Liquid drop model and mass formulas, Fission barriers and types of fissi on;

Parameterization of nuclear surface deformations, Prolate and oblate shapes, Types of

multipole deformations, Rotational states in axially symmetric deformed even- even and

odd- A nuclei, Rotation of axially asymmetric nuclei, Octupole and higher -order

deformations, Rotation- vibration coupling in deformed nuclei: beta and gamma

vibrations; Giant resonances;

UNIT IV: Related concepts and selected phenomena

Cranking model and its semi -classical derivation, Cranking formula and applications,

High -spin states and nucleon pair breaking at high angular momentum, Cranked Nilsson

model, Yrast states in nuclei, Nuclear Isomerism and types of isomers, Superdeformed

Page 35 of 112

states in nuclei, Particle -plus- rotor model: weak- coupling limit and strong -coupling

approximation

Suggested Reading:

1. Nuclear Models , by W. Greiner and J.A. Maruhn (Springer 1996)

2. Nuclear Structure from a Simple Perspective , by R. F. Casten (Oxford University

Press 1990)

3. Structure of the Nucleus , by M.A. Preston and R.K. Bhaduri (Levant Books 2008)

4. The Nuclear Many‐Body Problem , by P. Ring and P. Schuck (Springer 1980)

5. Theory of Nuclear Structure , by M.K. Pal (Affiliated East -West Press 1982)

Semester -III : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET302: Nuclear Reactions (60 lectures, 4 credits)

UNIT I: Basics: (12 lectures + 3 tutorials)

1. Basic elements of nuclear reactions:

i) cross section (σ), mean free path; definition/expression for σ : experimental

and theoretical.

ii) Use of σ to calculate: Stopping length, life time modification of unstable states

in a medium, mean life of a moving particle in an interacting volume, etc.

iii) Conservation laws: Energy, momentum, angular momentum, parity, isospin.

iv) Frame of reference: Lab. and c.m.

v) Q-values and threshold energies.

2. Partial wave decomposition, phase shifts and partial wave analysis of the cross

sections in terms of phase shifts. Behaviour of phase shifts in different situations.

Black sphere scattering. Optical theorem and reciprocity theorem. Unitarily.

3. Optical potential: Basic definition. Relation between the im aginary part, W of the

OP and σ abs , and between W and mean free path. Folding model and a high

energy estimate of the OP.

4. Decaying states. Relation between the mean life time and the width of the states.

Energy definition, Lorentzian or Breit -Wigner shape.

UNIT II: Categorization of Nuclear Reaction mechanisms (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

1. Low energies : Discrete region, Continuum Region

a) Discrete Region:

Page 36 of 112

i) Resonance scattering. Derivation of the resonance cross section from phase

shift description of cross section.

ii) Transmission through a square well and resonances in continuum.

iii) Coulomb barrier penetration for charged particles scattering and centrifugal barrier for l non- zero states.

iv) Angular distributions of the particles in resonance scattering.

v) Appli cation to hydrogen burning in stars.

b) Continuum Region:

i) Bohr’s compound nucleus model, and its experimental verifications.

ii) Statistical parameters and their estimates for the continuum region.

(a) Energy distribution of evaporated particles from compound nucleus.

2) Higher energies: Direct Reaction

i) Cross section in terms of the T -matrix. Phase space, and its evaluation for

simple cases. Lippmann Schwinger equation for the scattering wave function,

and its formal solution. On- shell and off - shell scattering.

ii) Plane wave and distorted wave approximation to the T -matrix (PWBA,

DWBA). Application to various direct reactions like, stripping, pick -up, knock-

out etc.

iii) High energy scattering. Eikonal approximation to the scattering wave

function. Evaluation of scatter ing cross section in eikonal approximation.

Suggested Reading:

1. Nuclear Reactions , by Daphne F Jackson (Methen & Co. Ltd.)

2. Theoretical Nuclear Physics , by John M Blatt and Victor F Weisskopf (John Wiley)

3. Direct Nuclear Reaction Theories , by Norman Austern (John Wiley)

4. Concepts of Nuclear Physics, by B. L. Cohen (Tata McGrow -Hill)

5. Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics , by A. Das & T. Ferbel (World

Scientific)

UNIT III: Physics of ion (stable and unstable) scattering (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

1. Stable ions

(i) Basics of heavy ions: short wave length, large angular momentum transfer,

kinematics and Coulomb potential.

(ii) Classical scattering: rainbow, orbiting, glory, etc. Semi- classical scattering.

(iii) Quantum mechanical description.

2. Radioactive ion beams (RIB)

(i) From stable to exotic nuclei in nuclear chart. Production and acceleration

of radioactive ion beams (RIB). Shell structure of exotic nuclei and

Page 37 of 112

magicity. Structural properties of unstable nuclei: radii, skins and halos,

spins and electromagnetic moments. Coulomb excitation and knock -out in

RIBs.

(ii) RIBs and nuclear astrophysics. Energy production in stars.

Nucleosynthesis.

Suggested Reading:

1. Semi‐classical methods for nucleus‐nucleus scattering, by D. M. Brink(Cambridge

University press 1985)

2. Nuclear heavy ion reactions , by P. E. Hodgson (Clarendon press 1978)

3. Introduction to nuclear reactions, by G. R. Satchler (McMillan 1990)

4. Nuclear reactions for astrophysics, by I. J. Thomson and F. Nunes (Cambridge

University press, ISBN 9780521856355, 2009)

5. Structure and reactions of light nuclei , CRC press, ISBN -13: 978- 0415308724.

6. Subatomic Physics , by E. M. Henley and A. Garcia (2007), World Scientific.

7. Scattering Theory of Waves and Particles , by Roger G Newton (Spring- Verlag)

UNIT IV: Intermediate Energy Physics and Non -nucleonic Degrees of Freedom(11

lectures + 4 tutorials)

1. Introduction: Classification of elementary particles, Isospin, Conservation rules

for strong interaction, Threshold beam energies in pp collisions for the

production of various mesons and baryons.

2. Proton- nucleus scattering at high energies: Eikonal approximation, Glauber

model, etc.

3. Electron- nucleus scattering and the structure of hadrons. Quark model for

hadrons.

4. Pion- nucleon scattering resonance. Pion- nucleon coupling, pseudoscalar and

pseudovector. Pion capture in nuclei. One nucleon and two nucleon mechanisms.

5. Pion production and excitation of nucleonic resonances in p- p and p- nucleus

collisions, experiments and theory.

6. An introduction to production of other mesons. Possibility of meson -nucleus

bound states.

Suggested Reading :

1. Nuclear reactions , by D. F. Jackson (Methuen & Co. 1970)

2. Nuclear Interactions , by Sergo DeBenedetti (John Wlley 1964)

3. Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics , by A. Das and T. Ferbel (World

Scientific 2009).

4. Subatomic Physics , by E. M. Henley and A. Garcia (World Scientific 2007),

Page 38 of 112

5. Physics of nucleons, mesons, quarks & heavy ions, by Y. K. Gambhir (Ed.) (Quest

publications, Mumbai, ISBN 81- 87099- 25-9 2003)

6. The pion- nucleon system , by B. H. Bransden and R. G. Moorhouse (Princeton

University press 1973)

7. SERC school series Nuclear Physics (1988), B. K. Jain (Ed.) (World Scientific, ISBN

9971506335 1988).

Semester -III : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET303: Electronic Structure of Solids (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I. Prototype Electronic Structure

1. Free electron gas in Infinite Square well potential – Sommerfeld theory of metals.

2. Electron energy levels in a periodic potential.

3. Nearly -free electron approximation.

4. The tight -binding method.

Unit II. Electronic Band Structure Methods

1. Cellular method; Augmented plane- wave (APW) method; Green’s function (KKR)

method; Orthogonalized plane wave (OPW) method; Pseudopotentials.

2. Band structure / Fermi surface of selected metals – alkali and noble metals, simple

multivalent metals, transition metals, rare -earths, semi- metals, semiconductors Si

and Ge.

3. Fermi surface probes: Electrons in a magnetic field - the de Haas -van Alfen effect.

Magneto - acoustic effect, cyclotron resonance.

Unit III. Motion of Band Electrons

Semi- classical electron dynamics; Motion of band electrons and the effective mass;

currents in bands and holes; scattering of band electrons; Boltzmann equation and

relaxation time; band electrons in electric field; electrical conductivity of metals;

therm oelectric effects; Wiedemann- Franz law; Electrical conductivity of localized

electrons; Band electrons in cross E and B fields – magnetoresistance and Hall effect.

Unit IV. Many – Body Effects

1. The Hartree- Fock method; exchange and correlation.

2. Density F unctional Theory.

3. Computations on simple atoms.

Main References:

Page 39 of 112

1. H Ibach and H Luth, Solid State Physics, 3rd ed.; Springer, 2003. Chpts. 6,7,9.

2. Neil W Ashcroft and N David Mermin, Solid State Physics . Holt, Rinehart and

Winston, 1976. Chapters 2, 8- 17.

3. Michael P Marder, Condensed Matter Physics, 2nd ed.; John Wiley and Sons, 2010.

Additional References:

1. Brian Tanner, Introduction to the Physics of Electrons in Solids, CUP, 1995.

2. M A Wahab, Solid State Physics , Narosa, 2005.

3. G Grosso and G Paravicini, Solid State Physics , Academic Press, 2000.

Semester -III : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET304: Surfaces and Thin Films (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: - Physics of Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin films

Mechanism of thin film formation: Condensation and nucleation, growth and

coalescence of islands, Crystallographic structure of films, factors affecting structure and

properties of thin films; Properties of thin films: - Transport and optical properties of

metallic, semiconducting and dielectric films; Appl ication of thin films.

Unit II: Thin films : Formation & Measurement

Vacuum Techniques: Review - Production of low pressures; Measurement of pressure,

Leak detections, Materials used

Preparation of Thin Films: Thermal evaporation, Cathode Sputtering, Chemic al

Deposition, Laser Ablation, Langmur Blochet Films

Thickness Measurements: Stylus Method, Electrical Method, Quartz Crystal Method,

Optical Methods, mass measurements (microbalance)

Unit III: Nano Science and Nano Technology

Band structure and Density of States at Nanoscale, Quantum mechanics for

nanoscience- size effects, application of Schrodinger eqution, quantum

confinement.Growth techniques for nano materials - Top down, Bottom up technique.

Nano technology applications - nano structures of Carbon, B N nanotubes,

Nanoelectronics, nanobiometrics

Unit IV: Surface Analytical Techniques

Page 40 of 112

X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron spectroscopy(AES), Depth

profiling by Ar ions, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), Secondary Ion Mass

spectroscop y (SIMS), Rutherford Backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Transmission

Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with EDAX, Scanning

Probe Microscopy – a) Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) , and b) Atomic Force

Microscopy (AFM)

Referenc es:

Unit I:

1. K.L. Chopra “ Thin Film Phenomenan” McGraw Hill Inc (1969)

2. Ludmila Eckertova “ Physics of Thin Films” Plenum Press NY (1986)

Unit II:

1. A. Roth “Vacuum Technology” North Holland Amsterdam

2. Ludmila Eckertova “ Physics of Thin Films” Plenum Press NY (1986)

3. Thin Film Phenomena LK Chopra McGraw Hill 1969

Unit III: -

1. “Introduction to NanoScience and Nanotechnology” K.K. Chattopadhyay

and A.N. Banerjee PHI learning (2009)

2. “Nanotechnology - Principles and Practices “ S.K. Kulkarni, Capital publishing 2007

Unit IV: -

1. “Surface and Thin Film Analysis” ed H. Bubert and H. Jennet, Wiley –VCH (2003)

2. “Fundamentals of Surface and Thin Film Analysis” L.C. Feldman and J.W. Mayer North Holland amsterdam (1986)

3. “Surface Analytical Methods” D.J. O’Conner, B.A. Sexton an d R. St. C. Smart (ed)

Springer Verlag (1991)

Semester -III : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET305: Microcontrollers and Interfacing (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit -I:

8051 microcontroller: (Review of 8051), Timer/Counters, Interrupts, Serial communication

Programming 8051 Timers, Counter Programming

Basics of Serial Communication, 8051 Connection to RS232, 8051 Serial Port

Programming in assembly. 8051 Interrupts, Programming Timer Interrupts,

Page 41 of 112

Programming External hardware Interrupts, Programm ing the Serial Communication

Interrupt, Interrupt Priority in 8051/52.

Ref. MMM: - The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems by M.A. Mazidi, J.G.

Mazidi and R.D. Mckinlay, Second Edition, Pearson

Ref. AVD: - The 8051 Microcontroller

Unit -II

16C61/71 PIC Microcontrollers: Overview and Features, PIC 16C6X/7X, PIC Reset

Actions, PIC Oscillator Connections, PIC Memory Organization, PIC 16C6X/7X Instructions, Addressing Modes, I/O Ports, Interrupts in PIC 16C61/71, PIC 16C61/71Timers, PIC 16C71 Analog -to-Digit al Converter.

Ref. AVD: - Microcontrollers by Ajay V. Deshmukh, Tata -Mcgraw Hill Publication

Unit -III

: PIC 16F8XX Flash Microcontrollers:

Introduction, Pin Diagram, STATUS Register, Power Control Register (PCON), OPTION_REG Register, Program memory, Data m emory, I/O Ports

AVD – Ch 10: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.10

Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Modules in PIC 16F877, Analog -to-Digital

Converter AVD – Ch 11: 11.1, 11.2, 11.5

Ref. AVD: - Microcontrollers by Ajay V. Deshmukh, Tata -Mcgraw Hill Publ ication

Unit -IV

: Interfacing microcontroller/PIC microcontroller and Industrial Applications of

microcontrollers:

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs); Push Buttons, Relays and Latch Connections; Keyboard Interfacing; Interfacing 7- Segment Displays; LCD Interfacing; ADC and DAC Interfacing

with 89C51 Microcontrollers.

Introduction and Measurement Applications (For DC motor interfacing and PWM refer

Sec 17.3 of MMM)

AVD: ch.12,c h.13.

MMM: Sec 17.3

Ref: AVD: - Microcontrollers by Ajay V. Deshmukh, Tata -Mcgraw Hill Publication

Ref. MMM: - The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems by M.A. Mazidi, J.G. Mazidi

and R.D. Mckinlay, Second Edition, Pearson

Page 42 of 112

Additional Reference books:

1. The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems -Dr. Rajiv Kapadia (Jaico

Pub.House)

2. 8051 Micro -controller, K.J.Ayala., Penram International.

3. Design with PIC microcontrollers by John B. Peatman, Pearson Education Asia.

4. Programming & customizing the 8051 microcontroller By Myke Predko, TMH.

Semester -III : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET306: Emb edded Systems and RTOS (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit -I:

Programming Using C++: Introduction to Computers and programming , Introduction to

C++, Expressions and interactivity , Making decisions, Looping , Functions , Arrays ,

Sorting arrays , Pointers

TG – Ch 1: 1.3 to 1.7 , Ch 2: 2.1 to 2.14, Ch 3: 3.1 to 3.11, Ch 4: 41 to 4.15, Ch 5: 5.1 to

5.13, Ch 6: 6.1 to 6.14, Ch 7: 7.1 to 7.9 , Ch 8: 8.3 , Ch 9: 9.1 to 9.7

Ref. TG: - Starting out with C++ from Control structures through objects, by Tony Gaddis,

Sixth edition, Penram International Publications, India

Unit -II:

Introduction to classes: More about classes, Inheritance, polymorphism, virtual

functions. TG – Ch 13: 13.1 to 13.11, Ch 14: 14.1 to 14.5, Ch 15: 15.1 to 15.6

Introduction to VC++ : YK – Ch 1, 2, 3

Reference:

TG: - Starting out with C++ from Control structures through objects, by Tony Gaddis,

Sixth edition Penram International Publications, India

YK: - Introduction to Visual C++ by Yashwant Kanetkar

Unit -III: Embedded systems

Introduction to Embedde d Systems: What is an embedded system, Embedded System

v/s General Computing System, Classification of Embedded Systems, Major Application

Areas of Embedded Systems, Purpose of Embedded Systems, Smart Running Shoes.

SKV – Ch 1: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7

Page 43 of 112

A Typical Embedded system : Core of the embedded system

SKV – Ch 2: 2.1

Characteristics and quality Attributed of Embedded Systems: Characteristics of an

Embedded System, Quality Attributes of Embedded Systems

SKV – Ch 3: 3.1, 3.2

Embedded Systems -Application and Domain–Specific: Washing Machine, Automatic -

Domain , Specific examples of embedded system

SKV – Ch 4: 4.1, 4.2

Design Process and design Examples : Automatic Chocolate Vending machine (ACVM),

Smart Card, Digital Camera, Mobile Phone, A Set of Robots

RK - Ch 1: 1.10.2, 1.10.3, 1.10.4, 1.10.5, 1.10.6, 1.10.7

Ref. SKV: - Introduction to embedded systems, by Shibu K. V. ,Sixth Reprint 2012, Tata

McGraw Hill

Ref. RK: - “Embedded Systems” Architecture, Programming and Design, by Raj Kamal,

Second Edition, The McGraw -Hill Companies

Unit -IV: - Real –Time Operating System based Embedded System Design:

Operating system Basics, Types of Operating Systems, Tasks, Process and Threads,

Multi- processing and Multitasking, Task Scheduling, Thre ads, Processes and Scheduling:

Putting them altogether, task Communication, task Synchronizations, Device Drivers,

How to choose an RTOS.

SKV: Ch – 10: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9. 10.10

Ref: SKV : - Introduction to embedded systems , by Shibu K. V. ,Sixth Reprint 2012, Tata

Mcgraw Hill

Additional references:

1. Object Oriented Programming with C++, By E. Balagurusamy, 2nd ed. TMH.

2. OOPS with C++ from the Foundation, By N. R. Parsa, Dream Tech Press India Ltd.

Semester -III : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET307: Signal Modulation and Transmission Techniques, (60 lectures,

4 credits)

Page 44 of 112

Unit I:

Single Sideband Techniques: Evolution and description of SSB, Suppression of carrier,

Suppression of unwanted sideband, Extensions of SSB, Frequency Modulation: Theory of

frequency and phase modulation, Noise and frequency modulation, Generation of frequency modulation. Radio Receivers: Receiver types, AM receivers, Communication

receivers, FM receivers, Single- sideband receivers, Independent -sideband receivers.

Unit II :

Transmission Line Theory: Fundamental of transmission lines, Different types of transmission lines; Telephone lines and cables, Radio frequency lines, Micro strip

transmiss ion lines. Definition of characteristics impedance, Losses in transmission lines,

Standing waves, Quarter and Half wavelength lines, Reactance properties of transmission lines, Fundamental of the Smith charts and its applications.

Unit III

:

Electromagnetic Radiation and Propagation of Waves: Fundamental of

electromagnetic waves, Effects of the environment, Propagation of waves; Ground

waves, Sky wave propagation, Space waves, Tropospheric scatter propagation,

Extraterrestrial communication

Unit IV:

Antennas : Basic considerations, Wire radiators in space, Terms and definitions, Effects

of ground on antennas, Antenna Coupling at medium frequencies, Directional high

frequency antennas, UHF and Microwave antennas, Wideband and special purpose

antennas

Main Refer ences:

[1] Electronic Communication Systems by George Kennedy and Bernard Davis, 4th ed.,

Tata McGraw -Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.

[2] Electronic Communication Systems- Fundamentals through Advanced by Wayne

Tomasi; 4th Edition, Pearson education Singapore.

Additional References:

[1] Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy & John Coolen, (4th ed., Pearson Ed.)

[2] Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller, (6th ed., Prentice Hall

International Inc. )

Page 45 of 112

Page 46 of 112

Semester -III : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET308: Microwave Electronics, Radar and Optical Fiber

Communication, (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I :

Waveguides, Resonators and Components: Rectangular waveguides, Circular and other

waveguides, Wavegu ide coupling, matching and attenuation, Cavity resonators,

Auxiliary components.

Unit II:

Microwave Tubes and Circuits : Microwave triodes, Multicavity Klystron, Reflex Klystron,

Magnetron, Traveling wave tube.

Microwave Semiconductor Devices and Circuits: Passive microwave circuits, Transistors

and integrated circuits, parametric amplifiers, Tunnel Diodes and Negative Resistance

Amplifier, Gunn effect and diodes, Avalanche effects and diodes. PIN Diode, Schottky barrier diode, backward diode.

Microwave Meas urements: Slotted line VSWR measurement - Impedance

measurement, insertion loss and attenuation measurements

Unit III:

Radar Systems : Basic principles; Fundamentals, Radar performance factors Pulsed

systems; Basic pulsed radar system, Antennas and scanning, Display methods, Pulsed

radar systems, Moving radar systems. Moving target indication, Radar beacons, CW

Doppler radar, Frequency modulated CW radar, Phased array radars, Planar array

radars.

Unit IV:

Optical Fiber Communication Systems: Introduction to o ptical fibers, signal degradation

in optical fibers, Fiber optical sources and coupling, Fiber optical receivers, System

parameters, Analog optical fiber communication links, Design procedure, Multichannel analog systems, FM/FDM video signal transmission, Digital optical fiber systems.

Main References:

1. Electronic communication systems by George Kennedy and Bernard Davis, 4

th ed.,

Tata McGraw -Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.

Page 47 of 112

2. Optical Fiber Communication by Gerd Keiser; McGraw‐Hill International, Singapore,

3rd Ed; 2000

3. Tomasi; 4th Edition, Pearson education

4. Electronic Communication Systems Fundamentals through Advanced by Wayne n

Singapore.

Additional References:

1. Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy and John Coolen, (4th ed.,

Pearson Educatio n).

2. Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller, (6th ed., Prentice

Hall International, Inc.).

3. Digital Communications Systems by Harold Kolimbiris, (Pearson Education Asia).

Semester -III : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET309: Semiconductors Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

(N.B.: Problems form an integral part of the course)

Unit I: Transport Properties of Semiconductors:

The Boltzmann transport equation and its solutions for (i) Electric field alone (ii)

Electric and Magnetic fields together. Hall Effect and Magneto resistance (van der Ziel). Scattering mechanism and Relaxation time concept, Transport in high electric

fields, hot electrons (Wang), transferred electron effects (Smith). Transport in 2-

Dimentional quantum well - (a) High field effects (i) Landau levels, (ii) Shubnikov de

Hass effect, (iii) Quantum Hall effect (b) Perpendicular transport - Resonant Tunneling

(JS- Art.17.3, 17.6, 17.7, 14.9).

Unit II: Optical Properties of Semiconductors:

Optical properties of Semiconductors: Fundamental absorption, Exciton absorption,

Impurity absorption, Free carrier absorption. Radiative recombination.

Photoconductivity. Surface recombination (Smith). Optical processes in quantum wells: Interband transitions in quantum wells, Intraband tr ansitions (JS - Art.15.7.2,

15.10)

Unit III: Amorphous & Organic Semiconductors:

Page 48 of 112

Electronic density of states, localization, Transport properties, Optical properties,

Hydrogenization of amorphous silicon, Si:H fields effect transistors- design, fabrication

and characteristics. Organic semiconductors, Polymers.

Unit IV: Advanced Electronic Materials:

Photovoltaics Fundamentals & Materials, Spintronics materials, Dilute magnetic semiconductors, Magnetites, Giant- magneto resistance. Composites, Glasses,

Ceramic s, Liquid crystals, Quasicrystals.

Main References:

1. Aldert van der Ziel, Solid State Physical Electronics, 2

nd edition, Prentice- Hall,

New Delhi, 1971.

2. S.Y. Wang, Introduction to Solid State Electronics, North Holland, 1980,

3. R.A. Smith, Semiconductors, 2nd edition; Cambridge University Press, London,

1978.

4. Jasprit Singh, Physics of Semiconductors and their Heterostructures, McGraw -

Hill, New York, 1993.

5. M.H. Brodsky (ed), Topics in Applied Physics Vol.36, Amorphous

Semiconductors,

6. S.R. Elliott, Physics of Am orphous Materials, Longman, London, 1983.

7. C.S. Solanki, Solar Photovoltaics- Fundamentals, Technologies and Applications,

PHI LPL, New Delhi, 2009.

Additional References:

1. J.I. Pankove, Optical processes in semiconductors,

2. J. Singh, Semiconductors, Optoelectronics, Mc- Graw Hill,

Semester -III : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET310: Thin Film Physics & Technology (60 lectures, 4 credits)

(N.B.: Problems form an integral part of the course)

Unit I: Thin films preparation &Thickness measurement

Metho ds of Preparation/synthesis of Thin films: Vacuum evaporation, Cathode

sputtering, Anodic oxidation, Plasma anodization, Chemical vapour

deposition(CVD), Ion -assisted deposition(IAD), Laser ablation, Longmuir Blochet

Page 49 of 112

film, Sol- gel film deposition. Thickness measurements: Resistance, capacitance,

microbalance, Quartz crystal thickness monitor,Optical absorption, Multiple

beam interference, Interference colour, Ellipsometry methods.

Unit II: Thin film Physics

Mechanism of thin film formation: Formation stag es of thin films, Condensation

and nucleation, Thermodynamic theory of nucleation, Growth and coalescence of

islands, Influence of various factors on final structure of thin films, Crystallographic structure of thin films. Properties of thin films: Conductivity of metal films, Electrical properties of semiconductor thin films, Transport in dielectric thin films, Dielectric properties of thin films, Optical properties of thin films. Thin films of high temperature superconductors, Diamond like carbon thin

films.

Unit III: Thin films for Devices & other Applications:

Dielectric deposition - silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, polysilicon

deposition, metallization, electromigration, silicides. Thin film transistors, thin

film multilayers, optical filters, mirrors, sensors and detectors.

Unit IV: Characterization/Analysis of materials and devices:

X-ray diffraction(XRD), Electron diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy

(TEM), Scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Energy dispersive analysi s of X -rays

(EDAX), Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), UV- VIS spectroscopy, Fourier

transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Electron spin

resonance (ESR), X -ray fluorescence (XRF), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X -

ray photoelec tron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM),

Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ion beam analysis techniques: Rutherford

backscattering (RBS), Channeling, Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA),

Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS).

Main References:

1. Ludmila Eckertova, Physics of thin films, 2

nd Revised edition, Plenum Press, New

York, 1986 (Reprinted 1990),

2. K.L. Chopra, Thin film phenomena, Mc -Graw Hill, New York, 1969.

Page 50 of 112

3. L. C. Feldman and J.W. Mayer, Fundamentals of surface and Thin Films Analysis,

North Holland, Amsterdam, 1986.

4. S.M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices -Physics and Technology, John Wiley,1985.

Additional References:

1. R.W. Berry, P.M.Hall and M.T. Harris, Thin film technology, Van Nostrand, New Jersey, 1970, K.L.Chopra and LK.Malhotra (ed),

2. Thin Film Technology and Applications, T.M.H. Publishing Co., New Delhi (1984).

Semester -III : Elective Paper -III

Unit I:

Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering, Types of Materials, Competition among Materials, Future trends In Materials Usage, Atomic Structure and Bonding,

Types of Atomic and Molecular Bonds, Ionic Bonding, Covalent Bonding, Metallic

Bonding, Secondary Bonding, Mixed Bonding, Crystal Structures and Crystal

Geometry, The Space Lattice and Unit Cells, Crystal Systems and B ravais Lattices,

Principal Metallic Crystal Structures, Atom Positions in Cubic Unit Cells, Directions in

Cubic Unit Cells, Miller Indices For Crystallographic Planes In Cubic Unit Cells,

Crystallographic Planes and Directions In Hexagonal Unit Cells, Comparison of FCC,

HCP, and BCC Crystal Structures, Volume, Planar, and Linear Density Unit Cell Calculations, Polymorphism or Allotropy, Crystal Structure Analysis

Unit II:

Solidification, Crystalline Imperfections, and Diffusion In Solids, Solidificatio n of

Metals, Solidification of Single Crystals, Metallic Solid Solutions, Crystalline

Imperfections, Rate Processes In Solids, Atomic Diffusion In Solids, Industrial

Applications of Diffusion Processes, Effect of Temperature on Diffusion in Solids.

Unit I II:

Mechanical Properties of Metals, The Processing of Metals and Alloys, Stress and Strain In Metals, The Tensile Test and The Engineering Stress -Strain Diagram,

Hardness and Hardness Testing, Plastic Deformation of Metal Single Crystals, Plastic

Deformat ion of Polycrystalline Metals, Solid -Solution Strengthening of Metals,

Recovery and Recrystallization of Plastically Deformed. Metals, Fracture of Metals,

Fatigue of Metals, Creep and Stress Rupture of Metals.

Unit IV:

Page 51 of 112

Phase Diagrams, Phase Diagrams of Pure Substances, Gibbs Phase Rule, Binary

Isomorphous Alloy Systems, The Lever Rule, Nonequilibrium Solidification of Alloys,

Binary Eutectic Alloy Systems, Binary Peritectic Alloy Systems, Binary Monotectic

Systems, Invariant Reactions, Phase Diagrams With Intermediate Phases and

Compounds, Ternary Phase Diagrams.

Reference:

1. William F Smith, JavadHashemi, Ravi Prakash, Materials Science and Engineering, Tata -McGraw Hill, 4th Edition.

2. William D. Callister, Materials Science and EngineeringAn Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, Inc ., 7

th Edition.

Semester -III: Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET312: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Metal nanoclusters: Magic numbers, Theoretical Modeling of nanoparticles,

Geometric

Structure, Electronic Structure, Reactivity, Fluctuations, Magnetic clusters, Bulk- to-

Nano transition; Semiconducting nanoparticles: Optical properties,

Photofragmentation, Coulomb Explosion; Rare- gas and molecular clusters: Inert gas

clusters, Superfluid clusters, M olecular clusters, Nanosized Organic crystals; Methods

of synthesis: RF plasma, Chemical methods, Thermolysis, Pulsed- Laser method,

Synthesis of nanosized organic crystals;

Cohesive Energy : Ionic solids, Defects in Ionic solids, Covalently bonded solids,

Organic crystals, Inert- gas solids, Metals, Conclusion.

Quantum wells, wires and dots : Fabricating Quantum Nanostructures: Solution

fabrication, Lithography; Size and dimensionality effects: Size effects, Size effects on

conduction electrons, Conduction electrons and dimensionality, Fermi gas and

density of states, Potential wells, Partial confinement, Properties dependent on

density of states; Excitons, Single electron Tunneling; Applications: Infrared detectors,

Quantum dot lasers.

(Owens and Poole: Chapter 3, 6 and 9)

Unit II:

Vibrational Properties : The finite One -dimensional monoatomic lattice, Ionic solids,

Page 52 of 112

Experimental Observations: Optical and acoustical modes; Vibrational spectroscopy

of surface layers of nanoparticles – Raman spectroscopy of surface layers, Infrared

Spectroscopy of surface layers; Photon confinement, Effect of dimension on lattice

vibrations, Effect of dimension on vibrational density of states, effect of size on Debye

frequency, Melting temperature, Specific heat, Plasmons, S urface- enhanced Raman

Spectroscopy, Phase transitions.

Electronic Properties : Ionic solids, Covalently bonded solids; Metals: Effect of lattice

parameter on electronic structure, Free electron model, The Tight -Binding model;

Measurements of electronic stru cture of nanoparticles: Semiconducting

nanoparticles, Organic solids, Metals.

Carbon nanostructures : Introduction; Carbon molecules: Nature of the carbon bond,

New Carbon structures; Carbon clusters: Small Carbon clusters, Buckyball, The

structure of molecular C60, Crystalline C60, Larger and smaller Buckyballs, Buckyballs

of other atoms; Carbon nanotubes: Fabrication, Structure, Electronic properties,

Vibrational properties, Functionalization, Doped Carbon Nanotubes, Mechanical

properties; Nanotube Composi tes: Polymer -carbon nanotube composites, Metal -

Carbon nanotube composites; Graphene nanostructures.

(Owens and Poole: Chapter 7, 8 and 10)

Unit III:

Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials : Stress -Strain Behavior of

materials; Failure Mechanism of Conventional Grain- Sized Materials; Mechanical

Properties of Consolidated Nano -Grained Materials; Nanostructured Multilayers;

Mechanical and Dynamical Properties of NanosizedDevices : General considerations,

Nanopendulum, Vibrations of a Nanometer String, The Nanospring, The Clamped Beam, The challenges and Possibilities of Nanomechanical sensors, Methods of

Fabrication of Nanosized Devices.

Magnetism in Nanostructures: Basics of Ferromagnetism; Behavior of Powders of

Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles : Propert ies of a single Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles,

Dynamic of Individual Magnetic Nanoparticles, Measurements of

Superparamagnetism and the Blocking Temperature, Nanopore Containment of

Magnetic Particles; Ferrofluids; Bulk nanostructured Magnetic Materials: Eff ect of

nanosized grain structure on magnetic properties, Magnetoresisitive materials,

Carbon nanostructured ferromagnets; Antiferromagnetic nanoparticles.

Nanoelectronics: N and P doping and PN junctions, MOSFET, Scaling of MOSFETs;

Spintronics: Definition and examples of spintronic devices, Magnetic storage and spin

valves, Dilute magnetic semiconductors; Molecular switches and electronics:

Page 53 of 112

Molecular switches, Molecular electronics, Mechanism of conduction through a

molecule; Photonic crystals.

(Owens and Poole: Chapter 12, 13 and 14)

Unit IV:

An introduction to nanochemistry concepts : Nanochemistry introduction, Surface,

Size, Shape,Self -assembly, Defects, The bio -nano interface, Safety.

Gold: Introduction, Surface, Size, Shape, Self -assembly, Defects, Bi o-nano, Gold -

Nanofood for thought.

Cadmium Selenide: Introduction, Surface, Size, Shape, Self -assembly, Defects, Bio -

nano, CdSe - Nanofood for thought.

Iron Oxide : Introduction, Surface, Size, Shape, Self -assembly, Bio -nano, Iron Oxide-

Nanofood for thought.

Carbon : Introduction, Surface, Size, Shape, Self -assembly, Bio -nano, Conclusion,

Carbon-

Nanofood for thought.

(Cademartiri and Ozin: Chapter 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7)

References:

1. The Physics and Chemistry of Nanosolids, Frank J. Owens and Charles P. Poole,

Wile y-Interscience, 2008.

2. Concepts of Nanochemistry, LudovicoCademartiri and Geoffrey A. Ozin, Wiley- VCH,

2009.

Semester -III : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET313: Galactic and Extra- Galactic Astronomy (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Galactic Astronomy: Galactic structure: Nucleus, Bulge, Disk and Corona Morphology of Galaxies: Dwarfs, Ellipticals, Spirals and Irregulars Rotation Curves: Dark Matter

Interstellar Medium and Molecular Complexes: Star formation. Metal Content, Initial

Mas s Function. Distribution and dynamics of Stars Stellar groups: Galactic and

Globular clusters and their ages. Spiral arms and magnetic fields Dynamical and

chemical evolution of galaxies: Interactions and mergers.

Unit II:

Extragalactic Astronomy: Classification of Galaxies: Hubble sequence. Groups and

Clusters of Galaxies: Missing mass (M/L) Intergalactic Medium: Diffuse Radiation and Magnetic Fields. Optical and X -ray observations: Cooling flows, Sunyaev- Zeldovich

Page 54 of 112

effect. Superclusters, Filaments, Voids, W alls Radio Sources. Faraday Rotation. Active

Galactic Nuclei. Seyferts, BL Lacs and Quasars: Unified Models Gravitational Lenses.

Unit III:

Introduction to General Theory of Relativity : Einstein's field eqns. (qualitative) FRW

metric.

Unit IV:

Cosmology : Hubble law for Expanding Universe Age & distance scale in cosmology.

Cosmological Parameters. Early Universe: Thermal history & Nucleosynthesis of light

elements. Structure formation, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: Observations & Inferences.

Main T exts / References:

1. A. Unsold and B Beschek., The New Cosmos, 4th ed.; Springer Verlag 1991.

2. P.V. Ramanmurthy and A.W. Wolfendale, Gamma Ray Astronomy; CUP, 1986.

3. J.V. Narlikar, Introduction to Cosmology; CUP, 1993.

4. G.B. Rybicki & A.P. Lightman, Radiative P rocesses in Astrophysics; Wiley Intl.

1979.

5. 5.P.J.E. Peebles, Principles of Physical Cosmology; Princeton University Press,

1993.

Semester -III : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET314: Plasma Physics, (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Definition of Plasma, occurrence of plasma, Debye shielding, plasma parameters,

criterion for plasma, (FC, JB, KT)

Single particle motion in uniform E and B fields, time varying E field, time varying B field, magnetic mirrors, Adiabatic invariants (FC, JB)

Transport phenomenon, Binary Coulomb collision, multiple Coulomb collisions,

Lorentz model of weakly ionized plasma, Diffusion and mobility in weakly ionized

gases, collision and diffusion parameters, ambipolar diffusion, diffusion in slab,

steady state solutions, reco mbination, plasma resistivity. Bohm diffusion. (FC, KT)

Unit II:

Page 55 of 112

Plasma Kinetic Theory and Vlasov equation: Introduction to plasma kinetic theory,

zeroth order equations Vlasov equation. Equilibrium solutions electrostatic waves,

Landau contour, landau dam ping. Wave energy. Physics of Landau damping, Nyquist

method and Penrose criteria, plasma heating in laboratory devices. Stability theory,

two stream instability, fire hose instability, flute instability, mirror instability. Rayleigh

Taylor instability. Io nospheric irregularities. (DN, KT, JB)

Unit III:

Langmuir waves, dielectric function, electromagnetic waves. Upper hybrid waves, electrostatic ion waves. Electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas, electromagnetic waves along Bo Alfven waves, fast magneto sonic waves. Drift waves

magnetosphere of the Earth. (DN, CF)

Derivation of fluid equations from the Vlasov equation, Single fluid equation, Introduction to MHD equilibrium. MHD stability, Resistive diffusion. Alfven waves, magneto acoustic waves, electro magnetic waves. (DN, JB, KT )

Unit IV:

Plasma production and diagnostics: Various plasma production techniques, Electrical breakdown in gases using dc. rf, microwave and high frequency fields Glow and arc

discharge. (IH, JR)

Plasma diagnostics, electrostatic probe, Magnetic probes, spectroscopic diagnostics,

active and passive techniques, interferometry techniques. (IH)

Low temperature plasma applications: plasma processing of materials: Physics of high and low pressure plasma sours and applicati ons to materials processing. Brief review

of plasma etching, PECVD, display, radiation sources, plasma source ion implantation.

Plasma cutting, melting, spraying and waste processing. Applications to nuclear,

space and semiconductor industries. (IH)

High t emperature plasma applications, controlled thermonuclear fusion, Introduction

to thermonuclear fusion, fusion reactions, cross sections, radiative processes in plasmas, energy loss, Lawson criterion, break even and ignition, magnetic and inertial

confineme nt scheme and devices, emission of X rays and neutrons, fusion plasma

diagnostics. (DM, ST)

Main References:

1. Francis F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Volume 1

Springer (FC)

2. J. A. Bittencourt, Fundamentals of Plasma Physics, Springer, 3

rd edition (JB)

Page 56 of 112

3. N. A. Krall and A.W. Trivelpiece, Principles of plasma physics, Mc GrawHill (KT)

4. I R. Hutchinson, Principles of plasma Diagnostics, Cambridge university Press, 2nd

edition (IH)

5. D. Nicholson, Introduction to plasma theory, Wiley, (DN)

6. J Reece Roth, Industrial Plasma Engineering, IOP Publications. 2000 (JR)

7. Inertial Confinement fusion, J.J. Dudesrstadt and G.A. Mosses, WiIey (1982) (DM)

8. Fusion An introduction to the Physics and Technology of Magnetic Confinement Fusion, W. M. Stacy, Wiley (1984) (ST)

Additional References:

1. An introduction to plasma Physics. R. R. Goldston & P. H Rutherford

2. Plasma Physics - An introduction. R. Dendy,

3. The physics of lasers plasma & interactions. W. L. Kruer, Addison -Wesley, 1988

Semester -III : El ective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET315: Group Theory (60 lectures, 4 credits)

UNIT I: FINITE GROUPS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIONS (12 LECTURES + 3

TUTORIALS)

1. Finite Groups Group axioms, Finite groups of low order, Cyclic Groups, Permutation Groups ,

Basic Concepts - Conjugation, Normal Subgroups, Quotient Group, Simple Groups,

Semi - direct product, Young Tableaux

2. Group Representations

Introduction, Reducible and Irreducible Representations, Schur’s Lemmas, Great Orthogonality Theorem, Character Tables, E xamples.

UNIT II: LIE GROUPS (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. Lie Groups and Lie Algebras

Introduction to Lie groups and Lie algebras - Roots and Weights, Lie Algebras

of matrix Lie groups

2. Representation Theory for Lie Groups/Algebras

Representations of Lie groups and Lie Algebras, Adjoint representation,

Representations of disconnected Lie groups, Direct product of representations of a Lie Group, The groups O(3) and SO(3) as examples.

Page 57 of 112

UNIT III: GROUP THEORY APPLICATIONS IN NON -RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM

MECHANIC S (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. Rotation Group and Angular Momentum

Angular Momentum algebra, Addition of angular momenta uncoupled and

coupled representation. Clebsch – Gordon coefficients and their simple

properties (For revision purpose only). Spin ½, Matrix Representations , The

rotation operators and rotation matrices, spin angular momentum and its

wave function, Representations of the rotation group, irreducible tensor

operators, The Wigner – Eckart theorem,

2. Applications in Solid State Physics

Point and Space Groups, Stereographic projections of simple crystallographic

point groups, Crystal field splittings of atomic energy levels.

UNIT IV: GROUP THEORY APPLICATIONS IN RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS

(11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. Lorentz Group and its Representations

Space –time symmetries, Lorentz and Poincare group, Conformal group.

2. Unitary Groups and Unitary Symmetries

SU(2) and Isospin, SU(3), GellMann matrices, Weights and roots of SU(3),

Fundamental representations of SU(3).

Suggested reading:

1. Group theory , and its applications to Physical Problems , by M.

Hamermesh(Addison- Wesley, 1962)

2. Lie Algebras in Particle Physics , by Howard Georgi (Westview, 1995)

3. Group theory : A Physicist’s Survey, by Pierre Ramond (Cambridge University

Press, 2010)

4. Elements of Group Theory for Physicists, by A.W.Joshi (New Age International,

1997)

5. Group Theory in Physics, by W.K.Tung (World Scientific 1989)

Semester -III: Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET316: Applied Thermodynamics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I

Page 58 of 112

First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy, enthalpy, specific heats, and first law applied to

systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin- Planck and Clausius statements, reversible and

irreversible processes, Carnot theorems, thermodynamic temperature scale, Clausius

inequality and concept of entropy, principle of increase of entropy; availability and

irreversibility.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: concept of temperature, Overview of techniques in low

temperature production

Unit II

Properties of Pure Substances: Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid,

liquid and vapor phases, P -V-T behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule,

thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, equations of state,

compressibility chart. Thermodynamic Relations: T-ds relations, Maxwell equations,

Liquefaction of gases: Joule -Thomson effect, Joule -Thomson coefficient, coefficient of

volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressib ilities, Clapeyron equation.

Unit III

Equilibrium Concept in Thermodynamics Unary, binary and multicomponent systems,

phase equilibria, evolution of phase diagrams, metastable phase diagrams, calculation

of phase diagrams, thermodynamics of defects. Soluti on models

Some Thermodynamic cycles: Carnot vapour power cycle, Ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine

Reheat cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle,

Unit IV

Thermodynamics of Phase transformation and Heterogeneous Systems:

Melting and solidification, precipitation, eutect oid, massive, spinodal, martensitic, order

disorder transformations and glass transition. First and second order transitions.

Equilibrium Constants and Ellingham diagrams

References:

1. M. Modell and R.C. Reid, Thermodynamics and its Applications, Prentice- Hall,

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1983.

2. H.B. Callen, Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatics, Jonh Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985.

3. R.T. DeHoff, Thermodynamics in Materials Science, McGraw -Hill, Singapore,

Page 59 of 112

4. Physical Chemistry of Metals: L.S. Darken and R.W. Gurry

5. Thermodynamics of Solids: R.A. Swalin

6. Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys: D.A. Porter and K.E. Easterling

7. Principles of Extractive Metallurgy: H.S. Ray

Semester -III : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET317: Quantum Field Theory, (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Relativistic Wave Equations and Classical Fields (12 Lectures + 3 Tutorials)

1. Klein Gordon equation, Relativistic energy -momentum relation, Klein -Gordon

equation, solutions of the equation, probability conservati on problem, relation with

negative energy states.

2. Dirac equation

Dirac equation, algebra of matrices, conservation of probability, solutions of Dirac equation, helicity and chirality, Lorentz covariance, bilinear covariants, trace

relations and similar ide ntities.

3. Dynamics of a solid

The linear atomic chain as a system of coupled oscillators, periodic boundary

conditions, normal modes, continuum limit, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian density, Euler -Lagrange equations for fields, extension to two and three dimens ions, velocity

of sound.

4. Free fields

Lagrangian formulation for the Schrödinger, Dirac and Klein- Gordon fields, Nöther’s

theorem, global gauge symmetries and associated Nöther currents.

Unit II : Canonical Quantisation Of Free Fields (11 Lectures + 4 Tutori als)

Page 60 of 112

1. Quantisation of solids

Quantisation of the linear chain, creation and annihilation operators, phonons,

occupation number representation, extension to two and three dimensions,

polarisation vectors.

2. Quantisation of the Schrödinger field

Expansion of the Schrödinger field in terms of eigenstates of the single particle wave

equation, creation and annihilation operators, number operator, occupation number representation, Slater determinant.

3. Quantisation of Relativistic fields

Quantisation of the scalar f ield, positive and negative energy solutions, expansion in

terms of creation and annihilation operators, antiparticles, eigenvalues of energy and charge.

Quantisation of the Dirac field along same lines as quantisation of the scalar field.

Quantisation of the electromagnetic field using Hamiltonian method, gauge invariance, modification of the commutation relation.

UNIT III: Interacting Fields a nd Feynman Diagrams (11 Lectures + 4 Tutorials)

1. Dyson formulation for scattering:

S matrix , Interaction picture, time evolution operator, Dyson expansion and S

matrix, transition matrix, relation to Fermi’s golden rule.

2. Wick expansion and contractions

Normal -ordered product, time- ordered product and contractions, Wick’s theorem

for the Schrödinger, Dirac and Klein- Gordon fields,

3. Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules ,

Diagrammatic representation, tree and loop diagrams, Feynman rules from the Wick

expansion.

UNIT IV: QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. The QED Lagrangian

Structure of the QED Lagrangian, gauge invariance and conserved current, Feynman

rules for QED, scalar electrodynamics.

2. Basic Processes in QED

Feynman diagram calculation for 𝑒

+𝑒−→𝜇+𝜇−, phase space integration, Moller

and Bhabha Scattering, polarisation vectors, Compton scattering and pair

creation/annihilation, Klein- Nishina formula.

Page 61 of 112

3. Loops and Renormalisation in QED

Loop diagrams: bubble, triangle and box, Ward identity for QED, UV and IR

divergences, cutoff regularisation, on- shell renormalisation of mass, wavefunction

and char ge, BPH renormalisation, counterterms, renormalisation group, running

coupling constant.

Suggested reading:

1. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Fiekd Theory, by Franz Gross(Wiley -VCH

Verlag GmbH & Co. KgaA, Weinheim, 2004)

2. A First Book of Quantum Field Theory , by A. Lahiri and P.B. Pal (CRC Press, 2005)

3. An Intro. to Quantum Field Theory , by M.E. Peskin and D.V. Schroeder (Perseus,

1995)

4. Quantum Field Theory , by C. Itzykson and J. -B. Zuber (McGraw -Hill, 1980)

Semester -III : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET318 : Nonlinear Dynamics , (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Flows on the line and in the plane, possibility and impossibility of oscillatory solutions:

Poincare- Bendixson theorem (without proof), types of fixed point, limit cycles and

concept of stabi lity, linear stability analysis, bifurcations, Lyapunov stability, self -

similarity and Fractals, various definitions of dimensions and their differeences, numerical and experimental methods to find dimension, chaos: sensitivity to initial

conditions, Lyapu nov exponent and the algorithm to determine it, examples of systems:

driven Duffing's and van der Pol oscillators, how to identify chaos in experimental

signals

Unit II:

Maps as Poincare sections, one dimensional maps: (skewed) tent, logistic and Bernoul li

shift, Feigenbaum numbers and universality, Sarkovskii's theorem: period 3 implies

chaos, Two dimensional maps: cat map, baker's map and horseshoe map, ergodicity and

mixing, stationary densities (invariant measures), Kolmogorov entropy, symbolic

dynami cs, different routes to chaos, attractor reconstruction: delay coordinates, Taken's

embedding theorem, linear stability analysis of periodic orbits, stable and unstable

manifolds

Unit III:

Page 62 of 112

Hamiltonian systems, symplectic structure, integrability, action -angle variables,

perturbation of integrable systems, KAM theorem, Hamiltonian maps: kicked rotor and

standard map, KAM tori, Signatures of chaos in classically chaotic quantum systems:

nodal lines, scars, density of states and Weyl's formula, fluctuations in the spectrum

Unit IV:

Many degrees of freedom: Fermi -Pasta- Ulam problem, nonlinear Schrodinger equation,

KdV equation, solitons: soliton solution of KdV equation, interaction of solitary waves,

Application

to Atmospher ic Physics: Rayleigh -Bernard convection and Lorentz equations, Application

to Chemistry: BZ reaction, Application to Astrophysics: Henon- Heiles system

References:

1. S. H. Strogatz: Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos (1994)

2. Edward Ott : Chaos in dynamical systems, Cambridge university press (1993)

3. Francis C Moon : Chaotic and fractal dynamics, John Wiley(1992)

4. P. G. Drazin, R.S. Johnson : Solitons , an introduction , Cambridge university

press(1989)

5. Michael Tabor: Chaos and integrability in nonlinear dynami cs, John Wiley(1989)

6. Robert Devaney: An introduction to chaotic dynamical systems

7. Hanz Jurgen Stockmann: Quantum chaos, Cambridge university press (1999)

8. M. C. Gutzwiller: Chaos in Classocal and Quantum mechanics (1990)

9. Feder: Fractals

Page 63 of 112

M.Sc. (Physics) Practical Lab Course

Semester – III

Semester III Elective Lab Course- 1

Course no.: PSPHAP302: Advanced Physics Lab -1 (120 hours, 4 credits)

A) For Students offering electives other than PSPH305, 306, 307, 308 (i.e.

Electronics I or Electronics II), have to perform at least 10 experiments from the

following

I. X-ray Powder Diffraction – (4- 5 experiments/ analysis of given data)

1. Structure determination of powder polycrystalline sample

2. Intensity analysis of XRD peaks

3. Strain analysis and Particle size determination by XRD

4. XRD Studies of Thin Films: Phase determination by JCPDS

II. Hall Effect

1. AC & DC effect in given semiconducting specimen

2. AC & DC effect at different temperatures and determination of carrier

mobility

3. Calibration of unknown magnetic field using a Hall P robe

III. Thermometry

1. Measurement of thermo -emf of Iron- Copper (Fe- Cu) or chromel -alumel

thermocouple as a function of temperature.

2. Voltage- Temperature characteristics of a Silicon diode sensor

3. Cooling curves and Phase diagram of Pb- Sn alloy system.

4. Ionic conductivity.

5. Creep study in Pb- Sn alloy wire.

6. Stress -Strain curves

IV. Dielectric Constant using LCR bridge

1. Determination of Transition Temperature of a Ferroelectric Material

2. Determination of Dielectric constant and studying its fre quency

dependence

V. LASER

1. Measurement of laser parameters.

2. Laser interferometer to find the wavelength.

VI. Plasma

Page 64 of 112

1. Measurement of critical spark voltage at different separation at a constant

pressure.

2. Measurement of plasma parameters. - Double probe method at constant

pressure.

VII. Nuclear Physics

1. Mass absorption Coefficient of Beta rays and energy range calculation.

2. Understanding of Poisson distribution and Gaussian distribution.

3. Calculation of rest mass of electron using Compton scattering experime nt.

4. Understanding of Surface barrier detector

5. Relative efficiency of beta and gamma rays using GM counter and feather comparison method to find range of unknown beta source.

VIII. Semiconductors and devices

1. Resistivity of Ge sample by van der Pauw method at different temp and determination of band gap

2. Optical transmission and absorption studies of elemental/ compound semiconductors

3. Band gap of semiconductors by photoconductivity

4. Band gap measurements of thin films using UV- Vis Spectroscopy

5. I-V measurements of Ge, Si, GaAs diodes at room temp, identification of

different regions, determination of ideality factor

6. Carrier lifetime by light pulse method

7. d c electrical conductivity of Semiconducting thin films at room

temperature and its temp dependence.

8. Thermo -electric power measurement of semiconducting thin films .

IX. Vacuum techniques and thin films

1. Pump- down characteristics: pumping speed of rotary and diffusion pump

at constant volume

2. Pumping speed of rotary and diffusion pump at constant volume

3. Vacuum /thermal evaporation method of thin film preparation and

estimation of sheet resistance

4. Measurement of thickness of vacuum /thermal evaporated/chemical bath

deposited thin films by gravimetric method and by interferometry

(Tolansky)

X. Computation

1. Least squares fit / curve -fitting

Page 65 of 112

2. Interpolation

XI. Microscopy

1. Texture determination by polarizing microscopy

XII. Astronomy and Space Physics

1. Image processing in Astronomy: Use of one of the standard software

packages like IRAF / MIDAS. Aperture photometry using the given

observational data. Seeing profile of a star.

2. CCD: Characteristics of a CCD camera. Differential photometry of a star w.r.t. a standard star.

XIII. Nonlinear Dynamics

1) Write a program to generate trajectories of the logistic map and hence

the bifurcation diagram.

Evaluate the Feigenbaum number numerically and verify the universality

by considering other unimodal maps.

2) Assemble a simple Chua's circuit on a bread board and observe the

waveforms on an oscilloscope . Observe the double scroll attractor in the

xy mode and the period doubling bifurcations as a control resistance is

varied. Draw a bifurcation diagram by noting down the period of the waveforms for different values of the control resistance.

3) Write a pr ogram to solve the equations for Duffing’s oscillator and study

its bifurcation diagram.

4) Construct a double pendulum and from its videogrammatic recordings

study its chaotic property.

B) The Students offering electives PSPH305, PSPH306. (i.e. Electronics I ) have to

perform at least 10 experiments from the following:

I Interfacing 8031/8051 based experiments :

1. Interfacing 8 bit DAC with 8031/51 to generate waveforms: square,

sawtooth, triangular.

2. Interfacing stepper motor with 8031/51: to control direction, speed and

number of steps.

3. Interface 8 -bit ADC (0804) with 8031/51: to convert an analog signal into its

binary equivalent.

Page 66 of 112

II Microcontroller 8031/8051 based experiments :

1. 8031/51 assembly language programming:

Simple data manipulation programs.(8/16- bit addi tion, subtraction,

multiplication, division, 8/16 bit data transfer, cubes of nos., to rotate a 32 -

bit number, finding greatest/smallest number from a block of data, decimal

/ hexadecimal counter)

2. Study of IN and OUT port of 8031/51 by Interfacing switche s, LEDs and

Relays: to display bit pattern on LED’s, to count the number of “ON” switches and display on LED’s, to trip a relay depending on the logic condition of switches, event counter(using LDR and light source)

3. Study of external interrupts (INT0/INT1) of 8031/51.

4. Study of internal timer and counter in 8031/51.

III 16F84 or 16FXXX) PIC Micro -controller based experiments (Using assembly

language only) :

1. Interfacing LED’s: flashing LED’s, to display bit pattern, 8 -bit counter.

2. Interfacing Push Buttons: to increment and decrement the count value at the output by recognizing of push buttons, etc

3. Interfacing Relay: to drive an ac bulb through a relay; the relay should be

tripped on recognizing of a push button.

4. Interfacing buzzer: the buzzer should be activate d for two different

frequencies, depending on recognizing of corresponding push buttons.

IV C++ and Visual C++ experiments :

1. C++ Program (Conversion from decimal system to binary, octal, hexadecimal

system).

2. C++ Program (Program on mean, variance, standard deviation for a set of

numbers.

3. C++ Program (Sorting of data in ascending or descending order).

4. C++ experiment (Programs on class, traffic lights)

5. C++ experiment (Programs on inheritance, over loading)

6. Visual C++ experiment

V Computation

1. Least squares fit / curve -fitting

2. Interpolation

Page 67 of 112

C) The Students offering electives PSPH307, PSPH308 (i.e. Electronics II), have to

perform at least 10 experiments from the following:

I Electronics Communication:

1. Generation of AM signal using OTA IC CA3080/op- amp and demodulation

using diode demodulator.

2. Balanced modulator and demodulator - study of suppressed carrier AM

generation using IC 1496/1596.

3. Generation of FM signal using IC 566/XR 2206

4. Characteristics of PLL IC 565/4046.

5. Frequency multiplication using PLL IC 565/4046.

6. FM modulator and demodulator using PLL IC 565/4046.

7. Loss measurements and numerical aperture in optical fiber.

8. Linear control system using fiber optical communication method.

9. Telemetry using optical fiber system.

10. Study of reflex Klystron modes using X -band and oscilloscope.

11. Study of propagation characteristics in a waveguide.

12. Simulation of radiation patterns of various antennas.

II Computation

1. Least squares fit / curve -fitting

2. Interpolation

References:

(i) Op-amp and linear ICs by Ramakant Gayakwad (3rd ed. 1993, Prentice Hall

of India).

(ii) Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller (6th ed., 1999,

Prentice Hall International, Inc.).

(iii) Op-amp and linear integrated circuits by Coughlin and Driscoll (4th ed.

1992, Prentice Hall of India).

(iv) Integrate Circuits by K. R. Botkar (8th ed., Khanna Publishers, Delhi ).

(v) Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits by

Sergio Franco (3rd ed., Tata McGraw Hill).

(vi) Analog and Digital Communication Systems by Martin S. Roden (5th ed.,

Shroff Publ ishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.).

(vii) Microwaves by K. C. Gupta (New Age International Ltd.).

Page 68 of 112

(viii) Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy and John Coolen (4th ed.,

Pearson Education).

(ix) Basic microwave techniques and laboratory manual by M. L. Sisodia and G.

S. Raghuvanshi (Wiley Eastern Ltd. 1987.).

(x) Electronic communication systems by George Kennedy and Bernard Davis

(4th ed., Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi).

(xi) Digital communication systems by Harold Kolimbiris (Pearson Education Asia).

(xii) Optica l fiber communication by G. Keiser (3

rd ed., McGraw Hill).

(xiii) Digital signal processing demystified by James D. Broesch (Penram

International Publications, India).

(xiv) The indispensable PC hardware book - Hans -Peter Messmer, Addison

Wesley (PEA).

(xv) Parallel port co mplete by Jan Axelson, (Penram International Publications,

India).

(xvi) Serial port complete by Jan Axelson, (Penram International Publications,

India).

(xvii) 8031/8051 Manuel Provided by the manufacturers

(xviii) AVD: - Microcontrollers by Ajay V. Deshmukh, Tata- Mcgraw Hil l

Publication

(xix) The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems by M.A. Mazidi, J.G. Mazidi and R.D. Mckinlay, Second Edition, Pearson

(xx) Starting out with C++ from Control structures through objects, by Tony Gaddis, Sixth edition, Penram International Publications , India

(xxi) Object Oriented Programming with C++, By E. Balagurusamy, 2

nd ed. TMH.

Note:

1. Journal should be certified by the laboratory in- charge only if the student

performs satisfactorily the minimum number of experiments as stipulated above.

Such students, who do not have certified journals, will not be allowed to appear

for the practical examinations.

Page 69 of 112

M.Sc. (Physics) Theory Courses

Semester – IV

Semester -IV : Paper -I:

Course no: PSPH401 Experimental Physics (60 hours 4 Credits)

Unit -I

Data Anal ysis for Physical Sciences: Population and Sample, Data distributions

Probability, Probability Distribution, Distribution of Real Data, The normal

distribution, The normal distribution, From area under a normal curve to an interval,

Distribution of sample means, The central limit theorem, The t distribution, The log -

normal distribution, Assessing the normality of data, Population mean and continuous distributions, Population mean and expectation value, The binomial distribution The Poisson distribution, Exp erimental Error, Measurement, error and

uncertainty, The process of measurement, True value and error, Precision and

accuracy, Random and systematic errors, Random err ors, Uncertainty in

measurement.

Main Reference: Data Analysis for Physical Sciences (Featuring Excel®) Les Kirkup, 2

nd

Edition, Cambridge University Press (2012), Chapters 1- 6 and 9

Additional Reference: Statistical Methods in Practice for scientists ad Technologists,

Richard Boddy and Gordon Smith, John Wiley & Sons (2009)

Internal tests wi ll be of solving problems using Excel.

Unit II

Vacuum Techniques: Fundamental processes at low pressures, Mean Free Path, Time to form monolayer, Number density, Materials used at low pressurs, vapour

pressure Impingement rate, Flow of gases, Laminar and turbulent flow, Production of

low pressures; High Vacuum Pumps and systems, Ultra High Vacuum Pumps and

System, Measurement of pressure, Leak detections

References:

I. Vacuum Technology, A. Roth, North Holland Amsterdam

II. Ultra High Vacuum Techniques, D. K. Avasthi, A. Tripathi, A. C. Gupta, Allied

Publishers Pvt. Ltd (2002)

Page 70 of 112

III. Vacuum Science and Technology, V. V. Rao, T. B. Ghosh, K. L. Chopra, Allied

Publishers Pvt. Ltd (2001)

Unit III

Nuclear Detectors: Gamma ray spectrometer using NaI scintillation detecto r, High

Purity Germanium detector, Multi -wire Proportional counter

Acclerators: Cockroft Walten Generator, Van de Graaf Generator, Sloan and

Lawrence type Linear Accelerator, Proton Linear Accelerator, Cyclotron and

Synchrotron .

References

1. Nuclear Radiation Detection - William James Price , McGraw Hill

2. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, W.R. Leo, Springer -

Verlag

3. Radiation Detection and Measurement, Glenn F. Knoll, John Wiley and sons,

Inc.

4. Particle Accelerators, Livingston, M. S.; Blewett, J.

5. Introduction to Nuclear Physics, HA Enge, pp 345- 353

6. Electricity & Magnetism and Atomic Physics Vol. II, J. Yarwood

7. Principles of Particle Accelerators, E. Persico, E. Ferrari, S.E. Segre

8. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy, C. N. Banwe ll, Tata -McGraw Hill

9. Radiation detection & Measurement -Glenn F. Knoll

10. Techniques for Nuclear & Particle Physics Experiment - William Leo

Unit IV

Characterization techniques for materials analysis:

1. Spectroscopy: XRD,XRF, XPS, EDAX , Raman, UV Visible spectroscopy, FTIR

spectroscopy .

2. Microscopy: SEM , TEM, AFM

References:

i. An Introduction to Materials Characterization, Khangaonkar P. R., Penram

International Publishing

ii. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, W. K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M. A. Nicolet, Academic Press

iii. A Guide to Materials Characterization and Chemical Analysis, John P. Sibilia, Wiley - VCH; 2 edition

Page 71 of 112

iv. Fundamentals of Surface and Thin Film Analysis, L.C. Feldman and J.W.

Mayer North Holland amsterdam

v. Elements of X -ray diffraction, Cullity, B . D Addison- Wesley Publishing

Company, Inc.

vi. Nano: The Essentials: T.Pradeep, TMH Publications

Semester -IV : Paper -II:

Course no: PSPH402 Atomic and Molecular Physics (60 hours 4 Credits)

Unit I: Review* of one- electron eigenfunctions and energy levels of bound states,

Probability density, Virial theorem.

Fine structure of hydrogenic atoms, Lamb shift. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift. (ER 8- 6)

Linear and quadratic Stark effect in spherical polar coordinates. Zeeman effect in strong and weak fields, P aschen -Back effect. (BJ, GW)

Schrodinger equation for two electron atoms: Identical particles, The Exclusion Principle. Exchange forces and the helium atom (ER), independent particle model, ground and excited states of two electron atoms. (BJ)

Unit II

The central field, Thomas- Fermi potential, the gross structure of alkalis (GW). The

Hartree theory, ground state of multi -electron atoms and the periodic table (ER), The

L-S coupling approximation, allowed terms in LS coupling, fine structure in LS

couplin g, relative intensities in LS coupling, j -j coupling approximation and other

types of coupling (GW)

Unit III:

Interaction of one electron atoms with electromagnetic radiation: Electromagnetic

radiation and its interaction with charged particles, absorptio n and emission

transition rates, dipole approximation. Einstein coefficients, selection rules. Line

intensities and life times of excited state, line shapes and line widths. X -ray spectra.

(BJ)

Unit IV:

Born- Oppenheimer approximation - rotational, vibrati onal and electronic energy

levels of diatomic molecules, Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)and Valence bond (VB) approximations, comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories (GA, IL)

Page 72 of 112

A) Rotation of molecules: rotational energy level s of rigid and non- rigid diatomic

molecules, classification of molecules, linear, spherical, symmetric and asymmetric

tops. B) Vibration of molecules: vibrational energy levels of diatomic molecules,

simple harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, diatomic vib rating rotator and

vibrational -rotational spectra. c) Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules: vibrational

and rotational structure of electronic spectra. (GA, IL)

Quantum theory of Raman effect, Pure rotational Raman spectra, Vibrational Raman

spectra, P olarization of light and the Raman effect, Applications

General theory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). NMR spectrometer, Principle of Electron spin resonance ESR. ESR spectrometer. (GA, IL)

(*Mathematical details can be found in BJ. The students are expected to be acquainted with them but not examined in these.)

Reference:

1. Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnick, Quantum physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei and Particles, John Wiley & Sons, 2

nd ed, (ER)

2. B.H. Bransden and G. J. Joachain, Physics of at oms and molecules, Pearson

Education 2nd ed, 2004 (BJ)

3. G. K. Woodgate, Elementary Atomic Structure, Oxford university press, 2nd ed,

(GW).

4. G. Aruldhas, Molecular structure and spectroscopy, Prentice Hall of India 2nd ed,

2002 (GA)

5. Ira N. Levine, Quantum Chemistry, Pearson Education, 5th edition, 2003 (IL)

Additional reference:

1. Leighton, Principals of Modern Physics, McGraw hill

2. Igor I. Sobelman, Theory of Atomic Spectra, Alpha Science International Ltd. 2006

3. C. N. Banwell, Fundamentals of molecular spect roscopy, Tata McGraw -Hill, 3rd ed

4. Wolfgang Demtröder, Atoms, molecules & photons, Springer -Verlag 2006

5. Sune Svanberg, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy Springer, 3rd ed 2004

6. C.J. Foot, Atomic Physics, Oxford University Press, 2005 (CF)

Page 73 of 112

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET401: Experimental Techniques In Nuclear Physics (60 lectures, 4

credits)

UNIT I: (12 lectures + 3 Tutorials)

Radiation sources: electrons, heavy charged particles, neutrons, neutrinos, and

electromagnetic radiation. Charge particle interaction: Stopping power, energy loss and range straggling, scaling laws, bremsstrahlung, Cherenkov radiation. Interaction of photons: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, pair production. Slow and fast neutron cross -sections, neutrino interactions, Radiation exposure and dose,

Biological effects, Radiation safety in Nuclear Physics Laboratory.

UNIT II : (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

Characteristics of Probability Distributions, The binomial Distributions, The Poisson

Distribution, The Ga ussian Distribution, Measurement of errors: systematic errors,

Random errors. Error propagation General Characteristics of Detectors: detector

response and sensitivity, energy resolution, timing characteristics, dead time, detection efficiency. Modes of de tector operation.

UNIT III: ( 11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

Gas-filled ionization detectors: ionization chamber, proportional counters including

Multi- Wire Proportional Counters, Geiger- Muller counter. Scintillation detectors:

organic (crystals, liquids and plastics) and inorganic (alkali halide and activated). Light

collection, Photomultiplier tubes. Semiconductor detectors: silicon diode detectors

(surface barrier, ion -implanted, lithium - drifted), position -sensitive detectors,

intrinsic germanium detectors, Introduction to Large Detector Arrays.

UNIT IV: (11 lectures + 4 tutorials)

Electronics for pulse Signal Processing: Pre -amplifiers, Main Amplifiers, Pulse shaping

networks in Amplifiers, Biased Amplifiers, Discriminators, Constant fraction Discriminator, Single channel Analyser, Analog to Digital converter, Multi -channel

Analyser, Time to Amplitude Converter. Delayed Coincidence Techniques, slow and fast Coincidence Techniques, Electrostatic and Magnetic Spectrometers, Overview of

Instrumentation Standar ds.

Note: tutorials may include demonstration of the various instruments

References:

Page 74 of 112

1. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, W.R. Leo, Springer -

Verlag

2. Radiation Detection and Measurement, Glenn F. Knoll, John Wiley and sons,

Inc.

3. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, Stefaan Tavernier, Springer

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET402: Particle Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

UNIT I :GENERAL CONCEPTS (12 LECTURES + 3 TUTORIALS)

1. Survey of Particle Physics

The four fundamental interactions, classification by interaction strength and

decay lifetimes, numerical estimates, use of natural units.

Classification of elementary particles by masses, interactions and conserved quantum numbers, selection rules for particle decays and scattering.

2. Experimental Techniques:

Particle detectors and accelerators: cloud and bubble chambers, emulsion techniques, electronic detectors, proportional counters, fixed target and collider machines, basic idea of cyclotron, synchrotron and linac.

3. Klein Gordon equation

Relativistic energy -momentum relation, Klein- Gordon equation, solutions of

the equation, probability conservation problem, relation with negative energy states.

4. Dirac equation

Dirac equation, algebra of matrices , conservation of probability, solutions of

Dirac equation, helicity and chirality, Lorentz covariance, bilinear covariants, trace relations and similar identities, C, P and T invariance of the Dirac equation.

Page 75 of 112

UNIT II: QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. The QED Lagrangian

Structure of the QED Lagrangian, gauge invariance and conserved current, scalar

electrodynamics, Feynman rules for QED (no derivation).

2. Basic Processes in QED :

Feynman diagram calculation for 𝑒+𝑒−→𝜇+𝜇−, phase space integration,

Moller and Bhabha Scattering, polarisation vectors, Compton scattering and

pair creation/annihilation, Klein- Nishina formula.

3. Higher Orders in QED

Concept of multi- loop diagrams (no computation), momentum integral, UV and IR

singularities, idea of regularisation, running coupling constant.

UNIT III: QUARK PARTON MODEL (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

1. The Eightfold Way

Isospin and strangeness, introduction to unitary groups, generators, Casimir

invariants, fundamental and adjoint representations, root and weight

diagrams, meson and baryon octets, baryon decuplet and the prediction of the Ω , Gell‐Mann‐Nishijima formula.

2. Quark Model

Product representations and irreps, symmetry group, Young tableaux, quark

model, meson and baryon wavefunctions.

3. Deep Inelastic Scattering

Elastic scattering off a point particle, form factors, Rosenbluth formula, Breit

frame, inelastic scattering, structure functions, dimensionless variables.

4. Parton Model

Bjorken scaling , parton model, structure functions in terms of PDFs, Callan -

Gross relation, kinematic regions, valence and sea quarks, gluons.

UNIT IV: WEAK INTERACTIONS (11 LECTURES + 4 TUTORIALS)

Page 76 of 112

1. Fermi theory

Beta decay, Fermi and Gamow -Teller transitions, current -current form of

weak interactions, Fermi constant, universality, unitarity violation at high

energies.

2. Intermediate vector bosons

𝑊±bosons, unitarity, requirement of conserved currents, muon decay, pion

decay, form factor.

3. Parity violation

Intrinsi c parity, parity conservation in strong and electromagnetic

interactions, parity violation in weak interactions, experiments of Wu et al

and of Goldhaber et al , maximal parity violation.

4. Flavour Mixing and CP Violation

FCNC suppression, Cabibbo hypothes is, kaon decays, theta- tau puzzle,

mixing, regeneration experiment, GIM mechanism, CKM matrix and quark mixing.

Suggested reading:

1. Introduction to Elementary Particles , by D. Griffiths (Wiley 1987).

2. Quarks and Leptons , by F. Halzen and A.D. Martin (Wiley 1984).

3. Particle Physics , by B.R. Martin and G. Shaw (Wiley 2008).

Semester -IV: Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET403 : Crystalline & Non crystalline solids, (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Crystal Growth and Crystal Defects

Crystal growth: Phase equili bria and Crystallization Techniques, phase diagrams and

solubility curves, Kinetics of Nucleation, Rate equation, Heterogeneous and secondary nucleation, Crystal surfaces, growth mechanisms, mass transport, crystal morphology,, influence of supersaturation, temperature, solvents, impurities;

Polymorphism – phase transition and kinetics.

Crystal Defects: Point Defects, equilibrium concentration of point defects, Activation

Energy, Colour Centres, Screw and Edge Dislocations, Burger Vector and Burger

circuit, Frank Read source, Stacking Faults, Grain boundaries, partial dislocations.

Role of Crystal Defects in Crystal Growth

Page 77 of 112

Unit II: Crystal Growth Technology

Silicon, Compound semiconductors, CdTe, CdZnTe - ,Czochralski technique,

Bridgman technique, Float zone Process, Liquid Phase expitaxy, Molecular Beam

epitaxy. Growth of Oxide & Halide crystals - Techniques and applications,

Unit III: Non Crystalline Solids:

Amorphous Materials : Amorphous semiconductors: Processing, P roperties: (1)

Structural and Electri cal conduction mechanism, band- gap, Hall effect , (2)Optical:

Absorption of light(U.V.,I.R) Applications of amorphous semiconductors: Solar Cells, Device and Device Materials Amorphous Metals: Metallic Glasses, Quasi Crystals. Rapid Quenching Technique, Pro perties Applications.

Liquid Crystals: Classification -isotropic- nematic, smectic- cholestic phases, Phase

transition of liquid phases, Properties: optical, electric and magnetic fields, Application of liquid crystals

Polymers: Major Polymer Transitions, Pol ymer Synthesis and Structures, Chain

Polymer and Step Polymer, Cross Linking, fillers, Macromolecule Hypothesis, Phases: amorphous & Crystalline States

Unit IV: Bulk Characterization Techniques

Bulk Characterization Techniques and their applications: Normal and small angle XRD, FTIR, UV Spectroscopy, X -ray Fluorescence, Mossbauer, NMR, ESR, neutron

diffraction

References:

Unit 1.

1. “from Molecules to Crystallizers: An introduction to Crystallization” Roger Davy and John Garside Oxford University Press (2000)

2. C. Kittel “ Solid state Physics : an Introduction” 5 thed Wiley eastern Chap 17 and 18.

3. N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin “Solid State Physics” Saunders College Chap

30.

Unit 2

1. Crystal Growth Technology” ed Hans J. Scheel and Tsuguo Fukuda Wiley (2004)

Unit 3:

(a) Liquid crystals

Page 78 of 112

1. Peter J. Collins and Michael Hind (Taylor and Francis) Chap 1 and 9

(b) Amorphous semiconductors

2. R. Zallen “the Physics of Amorphous Solids”John Wiley NY (1983)

3. M.H. Brodsky (ed) “Topics in Applied Physics” 38 Amorphous SemiConductors

(1979).

4. S.E. Elliot “Physics of amorphous Materials” Longman Gp. London (1990)

(c) Polymers

5. L.H. Sperling “Introduction to Physical Polymer Science” Wiley interScience

(2001) Chap 1 and Chap 5 and 6 (relevant portions only)

6. Fred W. Bi llmeyer “Textbook of Polymer Science” Wiley interscience (1971)

Unit 4:

1. “Spectroscopy” ed D.R. Browning McGrawHill (1969)

2. “Characterization of Materials” John B. Watchman and Zwi H. Kalman, Manning Publications (1993)

3. D.A. Scoog, F.J. Holler and T.A. Niem an “ Principles of Instrument Analysis”

Harcourt Pvt ltd. (1998).

Semester -IV: Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET404: Properties of Solids (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I Optical and Dielectric properties

Maxwell’s equations and the dielectric function, Lorentz oscillator, the Local field and the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant, Polarization catastrophe,

Ferroelectrics Absorption and Dispersion, Kraemers’ Kronig relations and sum rules,

single electron excitations and plasmons in simple metals, Reflectivity and

photoemission in metals and semiconductors Interband transitions and introduction

to excitons, Infrared spectroscopy.

Unit II Transport Properties

Motion of electrons and effective mass, The Boltzmann equation and relaxa tion time,

Electrical conductivity of metals and alloys, Mathiessen’s rule, Thermo -electric

effects, Wiedmann- Franz Law, Lorentz number, ac conductivity, Galvanomagnetic

effects.

Unit III Magnetism and Magnetic materials

Review: Basic concepts and units, basic types of magnetic order Origin of atomic

moments, Heisenberg exchange interaction, Localized and itinerant electron

magnetism, Stoner criterion for ferromagnetism, Indirect exchange mechanism:

superexchange and RKKY.

Page 79 of 112

Magnetic phase transition: Intro duction to Ising Model and results based on Mean

field theory, Other types of magnetic order: superparamagnetism, helimagnetism,

metamagnetism, spinglasses.

Magnetic phenomena: Hysteresis, Magnetostriction, Magnetoresistance,

Magnetocaloric and magneto -optic effect.

Magnetic Materials: Soft and hard magnets, permanent magnets, media for

magnetic recording.

Unit IV: Superconductivity

The phenomenon of superconductivity: Perfect conductivity and Meissner effect.

Electrodynamics of superconductivity: London’s equations, Thermodynamics of the

superconducting phase transition: Free energy, entropy and specific heat jump.

Ginzburg -Landau theory of superconductivity: GL equations, GL parameter and

classification into Type I and Type II superconductors, The mixed state of

superconductors.

Microscopic theory: The Cooper problem, The BCS Hamiltonian, BCS ground state

Josephson effect: dc and ac effects, Quantum interference.

Superconducting materials and applications: Conventional and High T c

superconductors, superconducting magnets and transmission lines, SQUIDs.

References

1. Solid State Physics, H. Ibach and H. Luth, Springer( Berlin) 2003 (IL)

2. Solid State Physics, Neil Ashcroft and David Mermin (AM)

3. Introduction to Solid State Physics (7th/ 8th ed) Charles Kittel (K)

4. Principles of Condensed Matter Physics, Chaikin and Lubensky (CL)

5. Intermediate theory of Solids, Alexander Animalu (AA)

6. Optical Properties of Solids, Frederick Wooten, Ac Press (New York) 1972 (FW)

7. Electrons and Phonons, J M Ziman 8. Electron transport in metals, J.L. Olsen

9. Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, K.H.J. Buschow and F.R. de Boer

10. Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, D. Jiles

11. Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, B. D. C ullity

12. Solid State Magnetism, J. Crangle

13. Magnetism in Solids, D. H. Martin

14. Superconductivity Today, T.V. Ramakrishnan and C.N.R.Rao

15. Superconductivity, Ketterson and Song

16. Introduction to Superconductivity, Tinkham

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET405: Microprocessors and ARM 7 (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit -I:

Page 80 of 112

8085 Interrupts : The 8085 Interrupt, 8085 Vectored Interrupts, Restart as

Software

Instructions, Additional I/O Concepts and Processes.

RSG - Ch 12: 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4

Programmable Peripheral and Interface Devices : The 8255A Programmable

Peripheral Interface, Interfacing Keyboard and Seven Segment Display , the 8259A

Programmable Interrupt Controller, Direct Memory Access (DMA) and 8237 DMA

Controller, the 8279 Programmable Keyboard/Display Interface

RSG - Ch 15: 15.1, 15.2, 15.5, 15.6 & Ch 14: only 14.3

Serial I/O and Data Communication : Basic Concepts in Serial I/O, Software

Controlled Asynchronous Serial I/O, The 8085 Serial I/O lines: SOD and SID

RSG - Ch 16: 16.1, 16.2, 16.3,

Ref. RSG: - Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with the

8085 by Ramesh S. Gaonkar, Fifth Edition Penram International

Publication (India) Pvt Ltd

Unit -II

8086 microprocessor:

Register organization of 8086, Architecture, Signal Descriptions of 8086, Physical

Memory Organization, General Bus operation, I/O Addressing Capability, Special Processor Activities, Minimum mode 8086 system and timings, Maximum mode of

8086 system and timings.

AB - Ch 1: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9.

8086 Instruction set and assembler directives:

Machine Language Instructions Formats, Addressing modes of 8086, Instruction

set of 8086. AB - Ch 2: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.

The Art of Assembly Language Programming with 8086:

A few machine level programs, Machine coding the programs, Programming with an assembler (only using Debug), Assembly language example programs.

AB - Ch 3: 3.1, 3.2, 3.3.4 & 3.4

Special architectural features and related programming:

Page 81 of 112

Introduction to Stack, Stack structure of 8086, Interrupts and Interrupt Service

Routines, Interrupt cycle of 8086, Non- maskable interrupt, Maskable interrupt

(INTR).

AB - Ch 4: 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6

Ref. AB: - Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals by a K Ray and K M Bhurchandi

Second Edition Tata McGraw –Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

(Note: Also refer Intel’s 8086 Data Sheet)

Unit -III: ARM 7:

The ARM Architecture: The Acorn RISC Machine, Architectural inheritance, The ARM

Programmer’s model, ARM development tools.

SF - Ch 2: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4

ARM Organization and Implementation: 3 – stage Pipeline ARM organization, ARM instruction execution, ARM implementation.

SF - Ch 4: 4.1, 4.3, 4.4

ARM Processor Cores: ARM7TDMI

SF – Ch 9: 9.1 only

Ref. SF: - ARM System -on-Chip Architecture, by Steve Furber, Second Edition,

Pearson

Unit -IV: ARM 7

ARM Assembly language Programming : Data processing instructions, Data transfer

instructions, Control flow instructions, Writing simple assembly language programs.

SF – Ch 3: 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4

The ARM Instruction Set: Introduction, Exceptions, Condition execution, Branch and

Branch with Link (B, BL), Branch, Branch with Link and eXchange (BX,BLX), Software

Interrupt (SWI), Data processing instructions , Multiply instructions, Count leading zeros (CL Z), Single word and unsigned byte data transfer instructions, Half -word and

signed byte data transfer instructions, Multiple register transfer instructions, Swap

memory and register instructions (SWP), Status register to general register transfer

instructions, General register to Status register transfer instructions

SF – Ch 5: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15

Page 82 of 112

The Thumb Instruction Set : the Thumb bit in the CPSR, The Thumb programmer’s

model, Thumb branch instr uctions, Thumb software interrupt instruction, Thumb

data processing instructions, Thumb single register data transfer instructions, Thumb

multiple register data transfer instructions, Thumb breakpoint instruction, Thumb

implementation, Thumb applications, Example and exercises.

SF – Ch 7: 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11

Ref. SF: - ARM System -on-Chip Architecture, b y Steve Furber, Second

Edition, Pearson

Additional Ref:

1 Microprocessors and interfacing, programming and hardware, By Douglas V. Hall

(TMH)

2 8086 Microprocessor: Programming and Interfacing K.J.Ayala, Penram

International

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET406: VHDL and Communication Interface (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit – I: VHDL‐I:

Introduction to VHDL: VHDL Terms, Describing Hardware in VHDL, Entity,

Architectures , Concurrent Signal Assignment , Event Scheduling, Statement

concurrency, Structural Designs, Sequential Behavior, Process Statements, Process

Declarative Region, Process Statement Part, Proce ss Execution, Sequential

Statements, Architecture Selection, Configuration Statements, Power of Configurations.

DLP - Ch 1

Behavioral Modeling: Introduction to Behavioral Modeling, Transport Versus Inertial

Delay, Inertial Delay, Transport Delay, Inertial Delay Model, Transport Delay Model, Simulation Deltas, Drivers, Driver Creation, Bad Multiple Driver Model, Generics,

Block Statements, Guarded Blocks.

DLP - Ch 2

Sequential Processing: Process Statement, Sensitivity List, Process Example, Signal

Assignmen t Versus Variable Assignment, Incorrect Mux Example, Correct Mux

Example, Sequential Statements, IF Statements, CASE Statements, LOOP statements,

NEXT Statement, EXIT Statement, ASSERT Statement, Assertion BNF, WAIT

Page 83 of 112

Statements, WAIT ON Signal, WAIT UNTIL E xpression, WAIT FOR time_expression,

Multiple WAIT Conditions, WAIT Time -Out, Sensitivity List Versus WAIT Statement,

Concurrent Assignment Problem, Passive Processes.

DLP - Ch 3

Ref. DLP: - VHDL programming by example by Douglas L. Perry, Fourth edition, Tata

McGraw - Hill

Unit -II: VHDL- II:

Data Types: Object Types, Signal, Variables, Constants, Data Types, Scalar Types,

Composite Types, Incomplete Types, File Types, File Type Caveats, Subtypes.

DLP - Ch 4

Subprograms and Packages: Subprograms Function, Co nversion Functions,

Resolution Functions, Procedures, Packages, Package Declaration, Deferred Constants, Subprogram Declaration, Package Body.

DLP - Ch 5

Predefined Attributes: Value Kind Attributes, Value Type Attributes, Value Array

Attributes, Value Blo ck Attributes, Function Kind Attributes, Function Type

Attributes, Function Array Attributes, Function Signal Attributes, Attributes ‘EVENT

and ,LAST -VALUE Attribute ‘LAST - EVENT Attribute, ‘ACTIVE and ‘LAST -ACTIVE Signal

Kind Attributes, Attribute ‘DELAYE D, Attribute ‘STABLE, Attribute ‘QUIET, Attribute

TRANSACTION, Type Kind Attributes, Range Kind Attributes.

DLP - Ch 6

Configurations: Default Configurations, Component Configurations, Lower -Level

Configurations, Entity -Architecture Pair Configuration, Port Maps, Mapping Library

Entities, Generics in Configurations, Generic Value Specification in Architecture,

Generic Specifications in Configurations, Board -Socket- Chip Analogy, Block

Configurations, Architecture configurations. DLP - Ch 7

Ref. DLP: - VHD L programming by example by Douglas L. Perry, Fourth edition, Tata

McGraw - Hill

Unit -III: Understanding USB and USB Protocols

USB Basics: Uses and limits, Evolution of an interface, Bus components, Division of

Labor, Developing a Device.

Page 84 of 112

JA – Ch 1

Inside USB Transfers: Transfer Basics, Elements of a Transfer, USB 2.0 Transactions,

Ensuring Successful Transfers, SuperSpeed Transactions.

JA – Ch 2

A Transfer Type for Every Purpose: Control transfers, Bulk Transfers, Interrupt

Transfers, Isochronous Transfers , More about time -critical transfers.

JA – Ch 3

Enumeration: How the Host learns about devices: The Process,

Descriptors. JA – Ch 4

Control Transfers: Structured Requests for Critical Data: Elements of a Control

Transfer, Standard Requests, Other Requests.

JA – Ch 5

Chip Choices: Components of USB device.

JA – Ch 6: Pages 137 - 141

How the Host Communicates: Device Drivers, Inside the Layers, Writing Drivers,

Using GUIDs. JA – Ch 8

Ref. JA: - The Developers Guide “USB Complete”, by Jan Axelson, Fourth Editi on,

Penram International Publishing (India) Pvt Ltd

Unit- IV: Communication Interface

On board Communication Interface: Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C), Serial Peripheral

Interface (SPI), Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART), Wire Interface,

Parallel Interface, External Communication Interfaces: RS -232 & RS -485, USB, IEEE

1394 (Firewire), Infrared (IrDA), Bluetooth, Wi- Fi, ZigBee, GPRS.

SKV: Ch – 2: 2.4

Detailed studies of I2C Bus refer :

I2C Bus Specification Version 2.1 by Philips (Pages 4 -18

and 27- 30) (Download from www.nxp.com)

• The I2C -Bus Benefits designers and manufacturers (Art 2: 2.1, 2.2)

• Introduction to the I2C -Bus Specification (Art 3)

• The I2C- Bus Concept (Art 4)

• General Characteristics (Art 5)

Page 85 of 112

• Bit Transfer (Art 6)

Data validity (6.1), START and STOP conditions (6.2)

• Transferring Data (Art 7)

Byte format 7.1, Acknowledge

7.2

• Arbitration and Clock Generation (Art 8)

Synchronization (8.1), Arbitration (8.2), Use of the clock synchronizing

mechanism as a handshake (8.3)

• Formats with 7- Bit Addresses (Art 9)

• 7-Bit Addressing (Art 10)

Definition of bits in the first byte (10.1)

• 10-Bit Addressing (Art 14)

Definition of bits in the first two bytes (14.1), Formats with 10 -bit addresses (14.2)

Detailed study of Bluetooth: Overview, Radio Specifications, FHSS

WS: Ch- 15: 15.1, 15.2 upto Page 512

Ref: SKV : - Introduction to embedded systems, by Shibu K. V. ,Sixth Reprint 2012,

Tata Mcgraw Hill

WS:-Wireless Communications and Netwo rks, by William Stallings, 2nd edition

Pearson

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET407: Digital Communication Systems and Python Programming

language (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Digital Modulation : Introduction , information capacity , bits , bit rate , Baud

and M -Ary encoding , ASK , FSK , PSK , QAM , Bandwidth efficiency , carrier recovery ,

clock recovery. Digital Transmission : Introduction, Pulse modulation, PCM sampling,

Signal to quantization noise ratio, Commanding, PCM line speed, Delta modulation

PCM, Adaptive delta modulation.

Unit II:

Telephone Instruments and Signals: Introduction, The subscriber Loop, Standard telephone set, Basic telephone call procedures, Call progress tones and signals,

Cordless telephones, Caller ID, Electronic telepho nes.

Page 86 of 112

Telephone Circuits : Introduction, Local subscriber loop, Transmission parameters

and private line circuits (concepts only), Voice frequency circuit arrangement.

Unit III:

Study of PC Serial Port: Options and choices, Formats and protocols, The PCs serial

port from the connector in, PC programming.

Cellular Phone Concepts : Introduction , Mobile phone service , evolution of cellular

phone , frequency reuse , interference , cell Splitting , sectoring , segmentation and

dualizati on , cellular system topology , roaming and handoffs

Cellular Phone Systems : Digital cellular phone, Interim standard 95, CDMA, GSM

communication.

Unit IV:

Python Programming language: Introduction, Installing Python, First steps, The

basics, operators and expressions, control flow, Functions.

More emphasis on writing small programmes using Python language

Main References:

1. Advanced Electronic Communications Systems (Sixth edition) by Wayne

Tomasi (PHI EE Ed)

2. Serial Port Complete by Jan Axelson; Penram Inter national Publications.

3. A Byte of Python by C. H. Swaroop.

Additional References:

1. Electronic Communication Systems Fundamentals Through Advanced by

Wayne Tomasi; 4th Edition, Pearson education Singapore.

2. Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy and John Co olen, (4th ed.,

Pearson Education).

3. Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller, (6th ed., Prentice Hall

International, Inc.).

4. Wireless Communication Technology by Roy Blake, (Delmar – Thomson

Learning).

5. Digital Communications Systems by Harold Kolimbiris, (Pearson Education Asia).

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET408: Computer Networking (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Page 87 of 112

Unit I:

Overview of Data Communication and Networking: Introduction, Data

communications, Networks, The internet, Protocols and standards; Network models,

Layered tasks, Internet model, OSI model.

Data Link layer: Error detection and correction, Types of errors, Detection, Error correction, Data link control and protocols, Flow and error control, Stop and wait

ARQ, Go -back- N ARQ, Selective repeat ARQ, HDLC, Point to point access, Pont to

point protocol, PPP stack, Multiple access, Random access, Controlled access,

Channelization.

Unit II:

Local Area Networks: Ethernet: Traditional ethernet, Fast ethernet, Gigabit Ether net,

Wireless LANs, IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth. Connecting LANs, Connecting devices (Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Two layer switch, Router and three layer switches), Backbone networks, Virtual LANs, Virtual circuit switching, Frame relay, ATM, ATM

LANs.

Unit III:

Network Layer: Internetworks, Addressing, Routing, Network layer protocols, ARP, IP,

ICMP, IPV6, Unicast and multicast routing protocols, Unicast routing, Unicast routing

Protocols, Multicast routing, Multicast routing Protocols.

Transport Layer: Process to process delivery, User datagram protocol (UDP),

Transmission control protocol (TCP).

Application Layer: Domain name system, Name space, Domain name space, Distribution of name space, DNS in the internet, Resolution, DNS messages, DDNS, Encapsulation, El ectronic mail, File transfer (FTP), HTTP, World wide web (WWW).

Unit IV:

Network Security: Cryptography, Introduction, Symmetric cryptography, Public -key

cryptography, Message security, Digital signature, User authentication, Key

management, Kerberos, Security protocols in the internet, IP level security (IPSEC),

Transport level security, Application layer security, Firewalls, Virtual private network.

References:

Page 88 of 112

1. Data Communications and Networking by B. A. Forouzan (3rd ed., Tata

McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi). Chapters

2. Advanced Electronic communications systems (Sixth edition) by Wayne

Tomasi (PHI – EE Ed)

3. Data Communications and Computer Networks by Prakash Gupta

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET409: Physics of Semiconductor Devices (60 lectures, 4 credits)

(N.B.: Problems form an integral part of the course)

Unit I: Metal -Insulator -Semiconductor (MIS) Devices:

Review of ideal MIS device, Si -SiO 2 Practical MOS diode, Oxide charg es,

defects, Surface and interface states, C -V and G- V measurement techniques

and characterization of MOS devices. Review of MOSFET Basic device

characteristics, Types of MOSFETs, Non- uniform doping and buried- channel

devices, Short- channel effects, MOS transistor scaling. MOSFET structures -

HMOS, DMOS, SOI, VMOS, and HEXFET. Charge coupled devices (CCDs), Non-

volatile memory devices, Simulation.

Unit II: Microwave, Power & Hot electron devices:

Microwave devices -Different types of Tunnel diodes, Tunnel tr ansitor, IMPATT

diode, BARITT diode, DOVETT diode, Transferred electron device, Gunn diode, Microwave transistor, Thyristors, Bipolar power transistor, Hot electron transistor; MOS Power transistor, HEMT.

Unit III: Optoelectronic Devices:

Light- Emitting Diodes, Liquid crystal displays, Photo detectors, Photodiode

materials, Phototransistor, Solar cells, Materials and design considerations, Thin film solar cells, amorphous silicon solar cells, Semiconductor Lasers,

Optical processes in semiconductor lasers (JS -Art.15.8), Heterojunction lasers.

Exciton (JS -Art16.1), Quantum confined Stark effect (JS.Art16.6), Quantum

well IR photodetector, Application of laser in materials processing, Fiber

optical waveguides, Losses and dispersion in fibers, Measurement of fi ber

characteristics, Fiber materials and fabrication, Fiber optics simulation.

Unit IV: Quantum well & Nano structures:

Page 89 of 112

Quantum wells: Band structure modifications by heterostructures; Band

structure in quantum wells, quantum wires, quantum dots; Modulatio n

doping; Mobility in a MODFET quantum well (JS -6.2, 6.3, 8.6, 14.2)

Nanotechnology: Nanomaterials, nanostructures, Synthesis of nanoparticles,

Semiconductor nanocrystals, Metallic nanoclusters, Carbon nanostructures,

Bulk nanostructured materials, Microel ectromechanical systems (MEMS).

Main References:

1. S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley, N.Y., 1981,

2. Jasprit Singh, Semiconductor Devices- Basic Principles, Wiley Student Edition,

New Delhi, 2009.

3. P. Bhattacharya, Semiconductor Optoelectronics devices, Prentice Hall,

India, 1995.

4. Gerd Kelser, Optical fiber communication, Mc Graw Hill -1980.

5. Jasprit Singh, Physics of Semiconductors and their Heterostructures,

McGraw -Hill, New York, 1993.

6. C. P. Poole and F. J. Owens, Introduction to Nanotechnology, Wiley

Interscience, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2003.

Additional References:

1. E.H. Nicollian an J.R. Brews, MOS Physics and Technology, John Wiley, 1982,

2. J. Wilson and J.F.B. Hawkes, Optoelectronics, An Introduction, Prentice Hall,

1983,

3. Jasprit Singh, Semiconductor Optoelectronics, Mc- Graw Hill

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET410: Semiconductor Technology (60 lectures, 4 credits)

(N.B.: Problems form an integral part of the course)

Unit I: Crystal growth and Epitaxy

(a) Crystal growth: Czochralski technique, Bridgman technique, Float zone process,

Zone refining, Zone levelling.

(b) Epitaxy Vapour phase epitaxy (VPE), Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), MOCVD, Heteroepitaxy, Growth of III -V compound

semiconductors, Growth of silicon on insulator (SOI) structures.

(c) Oxidation and film deposition: Oxide formation, kinetics of oxide growth, thin

oxide growth, oxidation systems.

Unit II: Diffusion and Ion -implantation

Page 90 of 112

Diffusion: Nature of diffusion, basic diffus ion theory, extrinsic Diffusion, diffusion

related physical processes, Boron diffusion system, Phosphorus diffusion system.

(a) Ion-implantation: Range of implanted ions, ion distribution, ion stopping,

ion channeling, Radiation damage and annealing, implantat ion related

processes, evaluation techniques for epitaxial layer, diffused layer

implanted layer and oxide layer.

Unit III: Lithography and Etching

(a) Lithography: Clean room, Masking, Photoresist, Passivation, Optical, Electron-beam, X - ray & Ion- beam lithography.

(b) Etching :Wet chemical etching, Dry etching, Plasma etching.

Unit IV: Integrated Devices

Device and circuit design and fabrication: Passive components -Integrated

circuit resistor, capacitor and inductor. Bipolar technology: Discrete bipolar

circuit fabrication, Bipolar technology, MOSFET technology, MESFET Technology, Fundamental limits of integrated devices, ULSI Technology; Simulation.

Main References:

1. S.M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices -Physics and Technology, John Wiley,1985

2. Integrated circui ts (Design principles & fabrication) – R.M.Warner, Motorola

series in Solid State Electronics,

3. K. Martin, Digital Integrated Circuit Design Oxford University Press, YMCA, New Delhi, 2004

Additional References:

1. E.L. Wolf, Nanophysics and Nanotechnology, Wil ey-VCH Verlag, Weinheim,

2004

2. S.K. Ghandhi, The theory and practice of Microelectronics, John Wiley and Sons,

3. S.M. Sze, VLSI Technology, Mc Graw Hill Book, N.Y., 2

nd Ed

4. S.K. Ghandhi , VLSI fabrication principles, John Wiley, N.Y., 1983

Semester -IV: Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET411: Materials and their applications (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

Page 91 of 112

Engineering Alloys, Production of Iron and Steel, The Iron- Iron Carbide Phase

Diagram, Heat Treatment of Plain- Carbon Steels, Low -Alloy Steels, Aluminum Alloys,

Copper Alloys, Stainless Steels, Cast Irons, Magnesium, Titanium, and Nickel Alloys,

Unit II:

Corrosion, Electrochemical Corrosion of Metals, Galvanic Cells, Corrosion Rates

(Kinetics), Types of Corrosion, Oxidation of Metals, Corrosion C ontrol.

Unit III:

Polymeric Materials, Polymerization Reactions, Industrial Polymerization Methods,

Crystallinity and Stereoisomerism In Some Thermoplastics, Processing of Plastic

Materials, General -Purpose Thermoplastics, Engineering Thermoplastics,

Ther mosetting Plastics (Thermosets), Elastomers (Rubbers), Deformation and

Strengthening of Plastic Materials, Creep and Fracture of Polymeric Materials.

Unit IV:

Ceramic Materials, Simple Ceramic Crystal Structures, Silicate Structures, Processing of Ceramic s, Traditional and Technical Ceramics, Electrical Properties of Ceramics,

Mechanical Properties of Ceramics, Thermal Properties of Ceramics, Glasses.

Composite Materials, Fibers for Reinforced- Plastic Composite Materials, Fiber -

Reinforced -Plastic Composite Materials, Open- Mold Processes for Fiber -Reinforced-

Plastic Composite Materials, Closed -Mold Processes for Fiber -Reinforced- Plastic

Composite Materials, Concrete, Asphalt and .Asphalt Mixes, Wood, Sandwich

Structures.

Reference:

1. William F Smith, Javad Hashemi, Ravi Prakash, Materials Science and Engineering,

Tata - McGraw Hill, 4th Edition.

2. William D. Callister, Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction, John

Wiley & Sons, Inc ., 7

th Edition.

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET412: Elective 12 Energy Studies (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

A brief history of energy technology, Global energy trends, Global warming and the greenhouse effect, Units and dimensional analysis, Heat and temperature, Heat

transfer, First law of thermodynami cs and the efficiency of a thermal power plant,

Page 92 of 112

Closed cycle for a steam power plant, Useful thermodynamic quantities, Thermal

properties of water and steam, Disadvantages of a Carnot cycle for a steam power plant, Rankine cycle for steam power plants, Gas turbines and the Brayton (or Joule)

cycle, Combined cycle gas turbine, Fossil fuels and combustion, Fluidized beds,

Carbon sequestration, Geothermal energy, Basic physical properties of fluids,

Streamlines and stream -tubes, Mass continuity, Energy conserv ation in an ideal fluid:

Bernoulli’s equation, Dynamics of a viscous fluid, Lift and circulation, Euler’s turbine equation.

(Andrews and Jelly: Chapter 1, 2, and 3)

Unit II:

Hydropower, power output from a dam, measurement of volume flow rate using a weir, Water turbines; Impact, economics and prospects of hydropower; Tides, Tidal

power, Power from a tidal barrage, Tidal resonance, Kinetic energy of tidal currents, Ecological and environmental impact of tidal barrages, Economics and prospects for

tidal powe r, Wave energy, Wave power devices; Environmental impact, economics

and prospects of wavepower; Binding energyand stability of nuclei, Fission, Thermal

reactors, Thermal reactor designs, Fast reactors, Present -day nuclear reactors, Safety

of nuclear power, Economics of nuclear power, Environmental impact of nuclear

power, Public opinion on nuclear power, Outlook for nuclear power, Magnetic confinement, D -T fusion reactor, Performance of tokamaks, Plasmas, Charged

particle motion in E and B fields, Tokamaks, Plasma confinement, Divertor tokamaks,

Outlook for controlled fusion.

(Andrews and Jelly: Chapter 4, 8, and 9)

Unit III:

Source of wind energy, Global wind patterns, Modern wind turbines, Kinetic energy of wind, Principles of a horizontal -axis wind turbine, Wind turbine blade design,

Dependence of the power coefficient C

p on the tip- speed ratio , Design of a modern

horizontal -axis wind turbine, Turbine control and operation, Wind characteristics,

Power output of a wind turbine, Wind farms, Environmental im pact and public

acceptance, Economics of wind power, Outlook, Conclusion, The solar spectrum, Semiconductors, p -n junction, Solar photocells, Efficiency of solar cells, Commercial

solar cells, Developing technologies, Solar panels, Economics of photovoltai cs (PV),

Environmental impact of photovoltaics, Environmental impact of photovoltaics, Outlook for photovoltaics, Solar thermal power plants, Photosynthesis and crop

yields, Biomass potential and use, Biomass energy production, Environmental impact

of biomass, Economics and potential of biomass, Outlook.

(Andrews and Jelly: Chapter 5, 6, and 7)

Page 93 of 112

Unit IV:

Generation of electricity, High voltage power transmission, Transformers, High

voltage direct current transmission, Electricity grids, Energy storage, Pumped

storage, Compressed air energy storage, Flywheels, Superconducting magnetic

energy storage, Batteries, Fuel cells, Storage and production of hydrogen, Outlook

for fuel cells, Environmental impact of energy production, Economics of energy production, Cost- benefit analysis and risk assessment, Designing safe systems,

carbon abatement policies, Stabilization wedges for limiting CO

2 emissions,

Conclusions.

(Andrews and Jelly: Chapter 10 and 11)

Reference:

ENERGY SCIENCE: principles, technologies, and imp acts, John Andrews and Nick

Jelley, Oxford University Press

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET413: Astronomy and Space Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I:

The Sky, Instruments and Observational tools: (a) Inventory of the Universe

Wavelength bands of observation: radio, infrared, optical, UV, X -ray and

Gamma- ray windows. Ground -based, balloon- borne and satellite- borne

telescopes, Celestial co - ordinate system: Right Ascension, Declination Time

keeping. Sidereal and Solar

(b) Resolution of Instruments and Limitations Optical telescopes,

Photometers, Spectrographs, CCDs, Polarimeters. Radio telescopes –

interferometry X -ray and Gamma- ray detectors Neutrino and Cosmic Ray

astronomy - origin, composition and spectrum.

Unit II:

Stellar Structure and Evolution: Stellar parameters: Mass, Radius, Luminosity,

Chemical Composition Spectral types colour, magnitude: H -R diagram. Stellar

physics: Equation of state, Opacity. Nuclear energy generation, Saha Ionization Equilibrium Planck Black body Radiation. Radiative and convective

transport of energy. Internal structure of stars and Virial Theorem. Stellar atmosphere. Absorption and Emission of lines. Stellar Evolution: Hayashi

phase. Main sequence, Horizontal Branch, Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant

Page 94 of 112

Branches. Planetary Nebulae and Supernova remnants. Stellar rotation. Stellar

magnetism. Mass Loss. Diffusion. Stellar pulsation: Helio - and Astero -

seismology.

Unit III:

Condensed Objects And High Energy Astrophysics: Compact objects: White

dwarfs and Chandrasekhar Limit. Neutron stars and Black holes: Pulsars, X -ray

and Gamma -ray sources. Binary systems: Accretion process and associated

phenomena: Bursts and Quasi -periodic oscillations. Radiation Processes:

Blackbody, Bremstrahlung, Cyclotron, Sync hrotron and Inverse Compton

emission. Interaction of high energy particles and photons with matter.

Acceleration of particles to high energy. Gamma ray Bursts and Very High Energy Cosmic Rays.

Unit IV:

Solar Physics: Description of solar internal and exter nal layers,

Magnetohydrodynamic equations, Hall effect and generalized Ohm’s law,

Magnetostatic equilibrium and sunspots, Solar activity cycle, Force -free

magnetic fields, Magnetic reconnections and solar flares, Waves: sound waves, Alfven waves, Internal gravity waves, inertial waves, magnetosonic

waves; Heating of the solar chromosphere and corona, Coronal mass

ejections, Solar wind and Parker’s solution.

Main References:

Unit 1:

i. F. Shu, The Physical Universe. An Introduction to Astronomy; University

Science Books, Sausalito 1982.,

ii. R.C. Smith, Observational Astrophysics; CUP, 1995,

iii. C.R. Kitchin, Astrophysical Techniques; Adam Hilger, 1984.

Unit 2:

i. M. Schwarzchild, Evolution of the Stars; Dover, 1966.

ii. R.J. Tayler, The Stars: Their Structure and Evolution; CUP 1994.

iii. R.J. Tayler, Galaxies: Structure and Evolution; Wykeham 1978.

Unit 3:

i. H. Harwit, Astrophysical Concepts; Springer Verlag 1988,

ii. M.S. Longair, High Energy Astrophysics, Vols. I and II; CUP 1994.

Unit 4:

Page 95 of 112

i. Solar Magneto –Hydrodynamics, E.R. Priest; D Reidel, 1982. chps. 1, 3.1- 3.5,

4.1, 4.3- 4.5, 6.1- 6.3, 12.1- 12.2.

Additional Books:

i. Astronomy, Fred Hoyle, 1975. Astronomy, 8th ed., Robert H Baker,

ii. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand, 1964. The Stars: Their Structure & Evolution; R.J.

Tayler, CUP, 1994.

Semest er-IV : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET414: Laser Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Laser characteristics and Resonators:

Principles, Properties of laser radiation, Einstein Coefficients, Light amplification,

Threshold condition for laser oscillations, Homogeneous and inhomogeneous

broadening, Laser rate equations for 2,3 and 4 level, variation of laser power around

threshold, optimum output coupling, Open planar resonator, Quality Factor ,ultimate

line width of the laser, Transverse and Lo ngitudinal mode selection.

Unit II: Nonlinear optics

Techniques for Q- switching, Mode Locking, Hole burning and Lamb dip in Doppler

broadened Gas laser, Nonlinear oscillator model, Nonlinear polarization and wave

equation, perturbative solution of the Nonlinear oscillator equation, Hormonic generation, Second harmonic generation, Phase matching third harmonic generation. Optical wave mixing, parametric generation of light, parametric oscillation, tuning of

parametric oscillators. Non -Linear susceptibilitie s, non -linear susceptibility tensor,

non-linear materials

Unit III: Laser Systems :

Solid State Laser, Gas lasers, liquid lasers, Eximer lasers. Semiconductor Laser. Liquid

–Dye and chemical lasers , high power laser systems and industrial applications.

Unit IV: Spectroscopic Instrumentation and applications:

Raman scattering, photo -acoustic Raman Spectroscopy. Raman Amplification and

Raman laser, special techniques in nonlinear spectroscopy, polarization

spectroscopy, multi- photon spectroscopy, photoflu oroscence excitation

spectroscopy.

Page 96 of 112

Holographic Optical Element: HOE, Design aspects, resolution, vibration and motion

analysis by Holographic techniques, holography, Spatial Frequency filtering, optical

Communication, optical computers. Laser ablation, Las er in Biomedicine.

Main References:

1. B. Laud, Laser and Non- linear optics, Wiley Eastern Ltd., (1991).

2. A.K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, optical electronics, Cambridge University

Press (1991).

3. S.C Gupta Optoelectronic devices and systems , Prentice Hall of India.

4. (WH) Wilson and Hawkes: Optoelectronics, Prentice Hall of India.

5. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, Oxford University Press

(1997),

6. Laser Spectroscopy - Basic concepts and instrumentation by Demtroder (ed. 3,

Springer)

Additional Reference books:

1. Laser: Svelto.

2. Optical electronics: Wariv.

3. Laser spectroscopy: Demtroder.

4. Non -linear spectroscopy: Etekhov.

5. Introduction to modern optics: G.R.Flowles.

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET415: Liquid Crystals (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit -I: Introduction to the Science and technology of Liquid Crystal.

Types and Classification of liquid crystals, Nature’s of Anisotropic Liquid Crystals.

Calamtic liquid crystal, Discotic Liquid crystal, Polymer liquid crystals, Chiral liquid

crystal, membranescolloidal system. Display Technologies Overview.

Ref: CP: Ch 1 ; PDG: Ch 1; PJC: Ch 1, 2, 3,4,5,6.

Unit -II: Theoretical Insights

Nature of phase transitions and critical phenomenon in liquid crystals, Maier -Saupe,

Landau de gennes theory, Van der Walls theories. Continuum theory: Curvature

elasticity in nematic smectic A phases, Distortions due to magnetic and electric fields,

Magnetic coherence length, Freedeicksz transitions. Onsager's mean field theory

Page 97 of 112

Ref: PJC: Ch12, 10. PDG: Ch 7

Unit- III: Merits of LCs

Dynamical properties of Nematic, equations of nemato -dynamics, laminar flow, Fluid

vs. solid membranes, energy and elasticity, surface tension, viscoelasticity, Molecular

motions. LC in electric and magnetic fields, light and liquid crystals, Mechanical,

Optical Properties: Cholesteric, Ferroelectric, Antiferroelectric, Polymer dispersed

liquid crystals, Elastomer.

Ref: PDG: Ch 5,6; SERS: Ch 9; CP: Ch 5

Unit IV: Characterization Techniques and Applications

Techniques used for Identi fication and characterizations of Liquid crystal phases,

Lyotropic liquid crystals and biological membrane,: Survey over flat panel

technologies. Liquid crystal displays, plasma displays .Applications of liquid crystals.

Ref: Ref: CP: Ch 2, 9; PJC: Ch 9, 7 , 13; DDLR.

Text Book and References

1. Introduction to liquid crystals: Physics and Chemistry.: Peter J Collings and

Michael Hird Taylor and Francis,1997.

2. Liquid crystal: The fourth state of matter.Frankin D saeva. Wiely publication.

3. Liquid Crystals: S Chand rsekhar, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 1992.

4. The physics of liquid crystals: P G de Gennes and J Prost, Oxford University

5. Ferroelectric liquid crystals: Principle properties and Applications: Gooby et a.l

Gordon & Breach Publishing Group, 1991

6. Thermotropic liquid crystals: Fundamental Vertogen and de jeu.

7. Polymer materials- Macroscopic properties and molecular Interpretations.

Jean- Louis Halary,Lucien monnerie.published by Wiley.

8. The Optic of Thermotropic Liquid Crystals.Steve Elston and Roy Sambles.

9. Textures of Liquid Crystals. Detrich Demus, Lothar Richter.Newyork 1978

10. Textures of Liquid Crystals- Ingo Dierking John Wiley & Sons, 08- May -2006 -

Technology & Engineering ..

11. Liquid Crystal: Experimental Study of Physical Properties and Phase Transitions Satyen Kumar, Cambridge University Press, 2001

12. Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: George W. Gray, Volkmar Vill, Hans W. Spiess, Dietrich Demus, John W. Goodby John Wiley & Sons, - 2009 Technology

& Engineering .

Page 98 of 112

13. Handbook of Liquid Crystals, High Molecular Weight Liquid Crystal Dietrich

Demus, John W. Goodby, George W. Gray, Hans W. Spiess, Volkmar Vills –

14. Principles of condensed matter physics – P.M. Chalkin and T.C. Lubensky.

15. Collidal Dispersions- W.B Russel , Cambridge University Press. New York (1989)

16. Properties and Structure of Liquid Crystals

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -IV

Course no.: PSPHET416: Numerical Methods and Programming (60 lectures, 4

credits)

Unit I : Programming using C++

Elementary information about digital computer, hardware, software, machine

language program, assembly language program, assembler, disadvantages of

machine and assembly language programming, High level language programs,

interpreter and compilers, flow charts - symbols and simple flowcharts, Structure o f a

C program, header files, constant and variables, data types and their declarations, operators – arithmetic operators, relational operators, logical operators, assignment

operators, conditional operator. Built in functions in C, Input/output functions f or

integer, floating points, characters and strings. Control statements- if, if -else, do -

while. For loop, nested if and nested for loops, goto statement. Library functions -

mathematical and trigonometric. Arrays - one dimensional and two - dimensional.

User defined functions - definition and declaration of a function, passing arguments,

return values. File handling - operation with files, opening and closing a file.

(structures and unions and pointers are not expected)

Unit II : Curve fitting, interpolation, Ro ots of Equation

Review of Intermediate Value theorem, Rolle's Theorem, Lagrange Mean Value theorem and Taylor's Theorem, Errors in computation and Numerical stability, Least squares method Principle, fitting a straight line, fitting a parabola, fitting an exponential curve, fitting curve of the form y=ax

b, fitting through a polynomial,

Linear interpolation, difference schemes, Newton’s forward and backward

interpolation formula, Lagrange’s interpolation formula.

Page 99 of 112

Polynomial and transcendental equations, limi ts for the roots of polynomial

equation. Bisectional method, false position method, Newton- Raphson method,

direct substitution method

Unit III : Numerical integration and solution of differential equation:

Newton cotes formula, Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s one third rule, Simpson’s three

eight rule, Gauss quadratics method, Monte Carlo method.

Solution of Ordinary differential equation using Taylor series method, Euler’s method, Runge- Kutta method, Milne’s and Adams Bashforth predictor -corrector

methods

Classification of second order partial differential equation, Solution of partial

differential equation- Difference equation method over a rectangular domain for

solving elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic partial differential equation

Unit IV : Solution of sim ultaneous equation and Random numbers

Gaussian elimination method, Gaussian elimination with pivotal condensation

method, Gauss -Jordan elimination method, Gauss -Seidal iteration method, Gauss -

Jordan matrix inversion method. Random numbers - Random number generation,

Monte Carlo simulation using Random walk on a square lattice.

Text and Reference books:

i. H. M. Antia: Numerical methods for scientists and engineers.

ii. S. S. Sastry: Introductory method of numerical analysis, PHI India 2005

iii. Rajaraman : Computer or iented Numerical methods, PHI 2004

iv. P. B. Patil and U. P. Verma : Numerical Computational methods, Narosa Publ.

v. E. Balgurusamy : Programming in ANSI C, Tata McGraw Hill

vi. Jain M.K., Iyengar SRK, Jain R.K. : Numerical methods for scientific and

vii. Engineering Computation , New Age International, 1992

viii. http://www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/video.php?subjectId=122102009

ix. Numerical recipes in C

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET417: Polymer Physics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Structure of Polymers:

Structure of Crystalline Polymers - Single crystals. Lamellar Single - crystals, Fibriliar

crystals. Globular crystals, Spherulites, Structure of Amorphous Polymers - Domain

Structure in amorphous polymers. Oriented State of Polymers. Structure & function

of Biopolymers - proteins. DNA. RNA, cellulose. Nano -composite polymers.

Page 100 of 112

Unit II: Viscoelastic Properties:

Elastic deformation, Maxwell and Kelvin Models, Relaxation processes and relaxation

spectrum. Creep of polymeric materials. Polymer Blends : Miscibili ty, Morphology

and glass transition temperature. Effects of additives and fillers on polymers,

Unit III: Electrical properties of polymers, electrical conduction, Electronic, ionic and

polaron processes. conducting polymers. Photoconduction, photovoltaics and

superconductivity in polymers. Optical absorption and optical birefringence in polymers. Liquid crystals and electro -optical properties.

Unit IV:

Preparation of thin films of organic materials (solution casting, electro -chemical,

CVD, interfacial method, LB technique), their structure, props, & Application.

Fundamentals of electrochemistry, electrochemical methods for preparation

characterization of thin films -CV & impedance measurement. Sensors, types of

sensors, electrochemical & optical sensors - Construction & functioning of these

sensors, advantages & disadvantages of these sensors (study of at -least two types of

sensors).

Main References:

1. Physics of Plastics, P.O. Ruchie. Illiffe Books Co. Ltd, (Chapters I to 4 and 6 to 8),

2. Phys. Chem. of Poly mers. Tager A, Mir Pubs, ()9?8),Chs. I, 2, 5, 7, 8. 10, 11, 17)

3. Conductive Polymers, R.B. Seymour (Ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1981) (Articles 1,3,7,9,11, 17, 19)

4. Elec. Props, of Polymers, D.A. Seanor (Ed.) , Academic Press (1982) (Chs. 1- 4,

Ch. 8)

5. Organ ic Semiconductors, F, Gutmann and I.E.I. Yons, John Wiley and Sons,

New York 1967) (Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 7)

6. Electrical Properties of Polymers, A.R. Rlythe, Cambridge University Press. London (1979), (Chapters 1, 5, 6)

7. Elec. Props, of Polymers, J.J. Krosehw itz, John Wiley, New York (1988), Pg, 58-

101.

10. Handbook of Conducting Polymers, T.A. Skotheim, Vol. 1 and. Marcel Dekker

(1986), (Chapters 8. 17, 20, 21.25)

11. Electrochemical Methods, Fundamentals and Application. A.J. Bard and L, R,

Faulkner, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1980)

12. The Chemical Physics of Surfaces, S.R. Morrison, Plenum Publishers (1990)

Page 101 of 112

13. Principles. of Chemical Sensors, Jiri Janata, Plenum Press, New York (1990)

(Ch. 1, 4, 5)

Page 102 of 112

Semester -IV : Elective Paper -III

Course no.: PSPHET41 8: Advanced Statistical Mechanics (60 lectures, 4 credits)

Unit I: Ideal Fermi and Bose Systems

Review of quantum ideal canonical and grand canonical ensembles; Statistics of

occupation numbers. Thermodynamic behavior of an ideal Bose gas, phenomenon of Bose- Einstei n condensation. Thermodynamics of blackbody radiation.

Thermodynamic behavior of an ideal Fermi gas, concept of Fermi energy, behaviour of specific heat with temperature.

Unit II: Phase transitions and critical phenomena

The Ising model and mappings; mean- field treatment; exact solution in 1 dimension.

Classification of phase transitions, critical exponents and scaling hypothesis,

correlations and fluctuations, correlation length. Universality; The conceptual basis

of scaling; renormalization group; application to Ising models.

Unit III: Non -Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: Fluctuations

Brownian motion: as a random walk (Einstein theory), as a diffusion process; random walk with bias and boundary conditions: application to phenomenon of

sedimentation; Langevin theory of Brownian motion; Fluctuation- dissipation

theorem. Spectral analysis of fluctuations – the Wiener -Khintchine relations.

Unit IV: Non -Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: Stochastic Processes

Chapman- Kolmogorov equation, Kramer -Moyal expansion, Fokker -Planck equation,

Master equation, Boltzmann equation. Linear response function, correlation and susceptibility.

Main references:

1. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, Greiner, Neise and Stocker, Springer

1995.

2. Statistical Mechanics (3 rd ed.), RK Pathria and PD Beale (P), Elsevier 2011.

3. Introduction to Statistical Physics, Kerson Huang (H), Taylor and Francis 2001.

4. The Fokker Planck equation, R. Risken, Springer

5. Stochastic Problems in Physics and Astronomy, S. Chandrasekhar, Rev. Mod. Phys. 15 (1943) 1.

Additional references:

1. Stochastic Processes in Physics and Chemistry, N.G. van Kampen, North- Holland.

2. Handbook of Stochastic Methods, C. W. Gardiner, Springer

Page 103 of 112

3. Non -equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, J.K. Bhattacharjee.

4. Elements of Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics, V. Balakrishnan, Ane Books,

India..

5. Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, F. Reif, Levant

M.Sc. (Physics) Practical Lab Course

Semester – IV

Semester IV Elective Lab Course- 2

Course no.: PSPHAP402: Advanced Physics Lab -2 (120 hours, 4 credits)

A) Students offering electives other than PSPH405, 406, 407, 408, (i.e. Electronics I

or Electronics II), have to perform at least 10 experim ents out of following:

I. Neutron Diffraction: Data analysis for structure and dynamic Q- factor

II. Mössbauer Spectroscopy

1. Fe57 Mossbauer spectra: Calibration and determination of isomer shift

and hyperfine field

2. Determination of isomer shift in stainless steel

3. Determination of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting in Sodium

Nitroprusside

4. Fe-based specimen: Determination of isomer shift, hyperfine field,

estimation of oxidation state in ferrite samples

III. Hartree –Fock Calculations

IV. Magnetization and Hysteresis

1. B-H loop in low magnetic fields (dc and ac methods)

2. Hysteresis of ring -shaped ferrite

3. Determination of Curie/ Neel temperature

4. Susceptibility of paramagnetic salt by Guoy’s method

V. Resistivity and IV Magnetoresistance

1. Resistivity of metallic a lloy specimens with varying temperatures

2. Study of percolation limit by resistivity measurement on ceramic

specimens

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3. Tracking of first and second order transition by resistivity measurement

in shape memory (NiTi) alloy

4. MR of Semiconductor, Bismuth and LSMO (Manganate) specimen

5. Calibration of magnetic field using MR probe

VI. LASER

1. Refractive index of the given materials

2. Refractive index of the Air at different pressure.

VII. Plasma

1. Measurement of plasma parameters. - Single probe

2. Measurement of plasma parameters. - Double probe method at

constant current.

VIII. Nuclear Physics

1. Energy resolution of NaI detector and understanding of its Pulse

processing electronics

2. Peak to total ratio and efficiency of NaI detector.

3. Sum peak analysis and detector size eff ect on peak to total ratio using

NaI detector.

4. Angular correlation ratio using NaI detector.

5. Coincidence Technique

6. Working mechanism of Plastic detector and measurement of lifetime of

muon.

IX. Semiconductors and devices

1. Si, Ge and LED:

a. I-V at different temperatures,

b. C-V at room temperature and determination of barrier height.

2. Schottky diode and MOS diode Fabrication

3. Determination of carrier concentration and barrier height from C -V

measurements

4. I-V characteristics and identification of the current conduction

mechanisms

5. Determination oxide charge, carrier concentration and interface states

of from C -V measurements.

6. Solar Cells: I- V characteristics and spectral response

7. Semiconductor lasers- Study of output characteristics and

determination of thresho ld current, differential quantum efficiency and

divergence.

8. Infrared detector characteristics and spectral response.

9. Optical fibers - Attenuation and dispersion measurements.

10. Gunn diode characteristics.

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11. Determination of surface concentration and junction de pth of diffused

silicon wafers by four point probe method.

X. Experiments using Phoenix kit

XI. Astronomy and Space Physics

1. The temperature of an artificial star by photometry.

2. Study of the solar limb darkening effect.

3. Polar aligning an astronomical telesc ope.

4. Study of the atmospheric extinction for different colors.

5. Study the effective temperature of stars by B- V photometry.

6. Estimate of the night sky brightness with a photometer.

XII. Computation

1. Computer program for file handling

XIII. Any one classica l Experiment (available in department or affiliated institutions)

1. Millikan’s oil -drop method,

2. Raman effect in liquids,

3. e/m by Thomson’s method

4. Rydberg’s constant using constant deviation prism.

XIV. Advanced Statistical Mechanics

1. Numerical simulation of random walk

2. Videogrammatic measurements of brownian motion and determination of

Boltzmann constant

3. Numerical simulation of Ising model (equivalent to three experiments).

B. Students offering electives PSPH405, 406, (i.e. Electronics I ), have to per form

at least 10 experiments out of following:

I.: 8085/8086 Microprocessor based experiments :

1. Study of 8085 interrupts (Vector Interrupt 7.5).

2. Study of PPI 8255 as Handshake I/O (mode 1): interfacing switches and

LED’s.

3. 8086 assembly language programming:

4. Simple data manipulation programs.(8/16 -bit addition, subtraction,

multiplication, division, 8/16 bit data transfer, finding

greatest/smallest number, finding positive/negative numbers, finding

odd/even numbers, ascending/descending of numbers, converting BCD nos.

into Binary using INT 20, displaying a string of characters using INT 20)

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Please note: Assembly language programming of 8086 may be done by

operating PC in real mode by using 'Debug' program. Separate 8086 study kit

not needed.

II. ARM7 based experiments :

1. Simple data manipulation programs (addition, subtraction,

multiplication, division etc).

2. Study of IN and OUT port of ARM7 by Interfacing switches, LEDs etc.

3. Study of Timer.

4. Interfacing DAC/ADC using I2C Protocols.

III. Basic VHDL experiments :

a. Writ e VHDL programs to realize: logic gates, half adder and full adder

b. Write VHDL programs to realize the following combinational designs: 2 to 4 decoder, 8 to 3 encoder without priority, 4 to 1 multiplexer, 1 to 4 de-multiplexer

c. Write VHDL programs to realize the following: SR – Flip Flop, JK – Flip Flop,

T – Flip Flop

d. Write a VHDL program to realize a 2/3/4 - bit ALU (2- arithmetic,2- logical

operations)

IV: VHDL Interfacing based experiments :

1. Interfacing stepper motor: write VHDL code to control direction, s peed

and number of steps.

2. Interfacing dc motor: write VHDL code to control direction and speed

using PWM.

3. Interfacing relays: write VHDL code to control ac bulbs (at least two)

using relays.

V. Computation

a. Computer program for file handling.

VI. Any one classical Experiment (available in department or affiliated institutions)

e.g.

1. Millikan’s oil -drop method,

2. Raman effect in liquids,

3. e/m by Thomson’s method

4. Rydberg’s constant using constant deviation prism.

References:

Page 107 of 112

1. Advanced Microprocessors and Peripher als by a K Ray and K M

Bhurchandi Second Edition Tata McGraw –Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

2. ARM System -on-Chip Architecture, by Steve Furber, Second Edition,

Pearson

3. VHDL programming by example by Douglas L. Perry, Fourth edition,

Tata McGraw -Hill

4. Manual of VHDL kit.

B) Students offering electives PSPH407, 408, (i.e. Electronics II ), have to perform

at least 10 experiments out of following:

Experiments in Electronics Communication

1. Sample and hold circuit using FETs or CMOS switch IC CA 4016/4066 or

IC LF398.

2. Study of ADC -DAC system using ADC 0804/0808 and DAC 0800/0808.

3. Flat top pulse amp. Modulation (PAM) using CMOS switch IC CA

4016/4066 FET.

4. Pulse width modulation (PWM) & pulse position modulation (PPM)

using IC565/ 555.

5. Time division multiplexing (TDM) using IC CA 4016/4066 or FET.

6. FSK modulator using IC 555 or PLL IC 565 and demodulation using PLL

IC 4046.

7. Study of PCM – Transmission and reception using CODEC IC.

8. Two channel analog multiplexer using CMOS switch

CA4016/CA4066/LF398.

9. PC to PC communication through serial port.

10. PC to PC communication through parallel port.

11. Study of Manchester coding and decoding using CODEC IC.

12. Experiments using Phoenix kit

13. Computation : Computer program for file handling

14. Any one classical Experiment (available in department or affiliated

institutions) e.g.

Millikan’s oil -drop method,

Raman effect in liquids,

e/m by Thomson’s method

Rydberg’s constant using constant deviation prism.

References:

1. Op-amp and linear ICs by Ramakant Gayakwad (3rd ed. 1993, Prentice

Hall of India).

Page 108 of 112

2. Modern Electronic Communication by Gary M. Miller (6th ed., 1999,

Prentice Hall International, Inc.).

3. Op-amp and linear integrated circuits by Coughlin and Driscoll (4th ed.

1992, Prentice Hall of India).

4. Integrate Circuits by K. R. Botkar (8th ed., Khanna Publishers, Delhi ).

5. Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits by

Sergio Franco (3rd ed., Tata McGraw Hill).

6. Analog and Digital Communication Systems by Martin S. Roden (5th ed.,

Shroff Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.).

7. Microwaves by K. C. Gupta (New Age International Ltd.).

8. Electronic Communications by Dennis Roddy and John Coolen (4th ed.,

Pearson Education).

9. Basic microwave techniques and laboratory manual by M. L. Sisodia

and G. S. Raghuvanshi (Wiley Eastern Lt d. 1987.).

10. Electronic communication systems by George Kennedy and Bernard

Davis (4th ed., Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi).

11. Digital communication systems by Harold Kolimbiris (Pearson Education

Asia).

12. Optical fiber communication by G. K eiser (3rd ed., McGraw Hill).

13. Digital signal processing demystified by James D. Broesch (Penram

International Publications, India).

14. The indispensable PC hardware book - Hans -Peter Messmer, Addison

Wesley (PEA).

15. Parallel port complete by Jan Axelson, (Penra m International

Publications, India).

16. Serial port complete by Jan Axelson, (Penram International

Publications, India).

17. Innovative experiments using Phoenix by Ajit kumarm IUACm New

Delhi, India.

Note:

1. Journal should be certified by the laboratory in- charge only if the

student performs satisfactorily the minimum number of experiments as

stipulated above. Such students, who do not have certified journals, will not be allowed to appear for the practical examinations.

Page 109 of 112

Page 110 of 112

M.Sc. (Physics) Projects

Semeste rs III and IV

Project evaluation guidelines

Every student will have to complete one project each in Semester III and Semester IV with four credits (100 marks) each. Students can take one long project (especially for SSP/SSE/Material Sc/Nanotechnology/Nuc lear Physics

etc) or two short project (especially for EI /EII). However, for one long project

students have to submit two separate project reports / dissertation consisting of the problem definition, literature survey and current status, objectives, metho dology and some preliminary experimental work in Semester III and

actual experimental work, results and analysis in semester IV with four credits each. Those who have opted for two separate projects will also have to submit two separate project reports at each examination. The project can be a

theoretical or experimental project, related to advanced topic, electronic

circuits, models, industrial project, training in a research institute, training of

handling a sophisticated equipments etc.

Maximum three st udents can do a joint project. Each one of them will submit

a separate project report with details/part only he/she has done. However he/she can in brief (in a page one or two) mention in Introduction section

what other group members have done. In case of electronic projects, use of

readymade electronic kits available in the market should be avoided. The

electronics project / models should be demonstrated during presentation of the project. In case a student takes training in a research institute/training o f

handling sophisticate equipment, he/she should mention in a report what training he/she has got, which instruments he/she handled and their principle

and operation etc.

Each project will be of 100 marks with 50% by internal and 50% by external

evaluatio n.

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The project report should be file bound/spiral bound/hard bound and

should have following format

• Title Page/Cover page

• Certificate endorsed by Project Supervisor and Head of Department

• Declaration

• Abstract of the project

• Table of Contents

• List of Figures

• List of Tables

• Chapters of Content –

• Introduction and Objectives of the project

• Experimental/Theoretical Methodology/Circuit/Model etc. details

• Results and Discussion if any

• Conclusions

• References

Evaluation by External/Internal examiner will be b ased on following criteria:

(each semester)

Criteria Maximum

Marks

Literature Survey 05

Objectives/Plan of the project 05

Experimental/Theoretical methodology/Working condition of

project or model 10

Significance and originality of the study/Society application

and Inclusion of recent References 05

Depth of knowledge in the subject / Results and Discussions 10

Presentation 15

Maximum marks by External examiner 50

Maximum marks by internal examiner/guid e 50

Total marks 100

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