## Bio medical Engineering 1 Syllabus Mumbai University by munotes

## Page 2

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(CAD),

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Migration Department (AEM),

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(RAPC),

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He is requested to treat this as action taken report on the concerned

resolution adopted by the Academic Council referred to the above

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## Page 3

AC – 28/12/2021

Item No. - 6.3

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

Bachelor of Engineering

(Bio-medical Engineering)

Direct Second Year (Sem. III) Admitted Students for the

current Academic Year 2021 -22 Only due to Covid

Pandemic

(REV - 2019 ‘C’ Scheme) from Academic Year 2019 – 20

Under

FACULTY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

## Page 4

2

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Program Structure for Second Year Engineering

Semester III & I V

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

(With Effect from 2020 -2021 )

Semester I II

Course

Code Course Name Teaching Scheme

(Contact Hours) Credits Assigned

Theory Pract. Tut. Theory Pract . Tut. Total

BMC301 Engineering

Mathematics - III 3 -- 1 3 -- 1 4

BMC302 Human Anatomy and

Physiology for Engineers 3 -- 3 -- 3

BMC303 Medical Sensors 3 -- -- 3 -- -- 3

BMC304 Electronic Circuits

Analysis and Design 4 -- -- 4 -- -- 4

BMC305 Digital Electronics 3 -- -- 3 -- -- 3

BML3 01 Human Anatomy and

Physiology for Engineers

Lab -- 2 -- -- 1 -- 1

BML3 02 Medical Sensors Lab -- 2 -- -- 1 -- 1

BML3 03 Electronic Circuits

Analysis and Design Lab -- 2 -- -- 1 -- 1

BML304 Electronics Lab ( SBL) -- 4 -- -- 2 -- 2

BMM301 Mini Project – 1 A -- 4$ -- -- 2 -- 2

Total 16 14 1 16 07 1 24

Course

Code Course Name Examination Scheme

Theory

Term

Work Pract/

oral Total Internal

Assessment End

Sem.

Exam Exam.

Duration

(in Hrs) Test

1 Test

2 Avg.

BMC301 Engineering

Mathematics - III 20 20 20 80 3 25 -- 125

BMC3 02 Human Anatomy and

Physiology for Engineers 20 20 20 80 3 -- -- 100

BMC303 Medical Sensors 20 20 20 80 3 -- -- 100

BMC304 Electronic Circuits

Analysis and Design 20 20 20 80 3 -- -- 100

BMC305 Digital Electronics 20 20 20 80 3 -- -- 100

BML3 01 Human Anatomy and

Physiology for Engineers

Lab -- -- -- -- -- 25 -- 25

BML3 02 Medical Sensors Lab -- -- -- -- -- 25 25 50

BML3 03 Electronic Circuits

Analysis and Design Lab -- -- -- -- -- 25 25 50

BML304 Electronics Lab (SBL) -- -- -- -- -- 25 25 50

BMM301 Mini Project – 1 A -- -- -- -- -- 25 -- 25

Total -- -- 100 400 -- 150 75 725

$ indicates wor k load of Learner (Not Faculty), for Mini Project - 1 A.

Faculty Load :1 hour per week per 4 mini project groups.

## Page 5

3

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Semester – III

Course

Code Teaching Scheme Credits Assigned

Course

Name (Contact Hours)

Theory Pract. Tut. Theory TW/Pract Tut. Total

BMC301 Engineering

Mathematics -III 03 - 01 03 - 01 04

Course

Code Course Name Examination Scheme

Theory

Term

Work Pract Oral Total

Internal Assessment

End

Sem

Exam

Test1

Test2

Avg of

Test 1

& 2

BMC301 Engineering

Mathematics -III 20 20 20 80 25 - - 125

Pre-requisite: Engineering Mathematics -I, Engineering Mathematics -II, Scalar and Vector Product:

Scalar and Vector product of three and four vectors.

Course Code Course Name Credits

BMC301 Engineering Mathematics - III 04

Course Objectives • To familiarize with the Laplace Transform, Inverse Laplace Transform

of various functions, and its applications.

• To acquaint with the concept of Fourier Series, its complex form and

enhance the problem solving skills

• To familiarize the concept of complex variables, C -R equations,

harmonic functions, its conjugate and mapping in complex plane.

• To understand the basics of Linear Algebra and its applications

• To use concepts of vector calculus to analyze and model engineering

problems.

Course Outcomes On successful completion of course learner will be able to :

• Apply the concept of Laplace transform to solve the real integrals in

engineering problems.

• Apply the concept of inverse Laplace transform of v arious functions in

engineering problems.

• Expand the periodic function by using Fourier series for real life

problems and complex engineering problems.

• Find orthogonal trajectories and analytic function by using basic

concepts of complex variables.

• Illustrate the use of matrix algebra to solve the engineering problems.

• Apply the concepts of vector calculus in real life problems.

## Page 6

4

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Module Detailed Contents Hrs.

1. Module: Laplace Transform

1.1 Definition of Laplace transform, Condition of Existence of Laplace Transform.

1.2 Laplace Transform (L) of standard functions like 𝑒𝑎𝑡, 𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝑎𝑡), 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑎𝑡), 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ(𝑎𝑡),

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ(𝑎𝑡) and 𝑡𝑛,𝑛≥0.

1.3 Properties of Laplace Transform: Linearity, First Shifting Theorem, Second Shifting

Theorem, Change of Scale Property, Multiplication by t, Division by t, Laplace

Transform of derivatives and integrals (Properties without proof).

1.4 Evaluation of integrals by using Laplace Transformation.

Self-learning Topics: Heaviside’s Unit Step function, Laplace Transform of Periodic

functions, Dirac Delta Function. 07

2. Module: Inverse Laplace Transform

2.1 Inverse Laplace Transform, Linearity property, use of standard formulae to

find inverse Laplace Transform, finding Inverse Laplace Transform using

derivatives.

2.2 Partial fractions method to find inverse Laplace Transform.

2.3 Inverse L aplace Transform using Convolution theorem (without proof).

Self-learning Topics: Applications to solve initial and boundary value problems

involving ordinary differential equations. 06

3. Module: Fourier Series:

3.1 Dirichlet’s conditions, Definition of Fourier series and Parseval’s Identity

(without proof).

3.2 Fourier series of periodic function with period 2𝜋 and 2l.

3.3 Fourier series of even and odd functions.

3.4 Half range Sine and Cosine Series.

Self-learning Topics: Complex form of Fourier Series, Orthogonal and orthonormal set

of functions. Fourier Transform. 07

4. Module: Complex Variables:

4.1 Function f(z) of complex variable, limit, continuity and differentiability of

f(z)Analytic function, necessary and sufficient conditions for f(z) to be

analytic (without proof).

4.2 Cauchy -Riemann equations in cartesian coordinates (without proof).

4.3 Milne -Thomson method to determine analytic function f(z)when real part

(u) or Imaginary part (v) or its combination (u+v or u -v) is given.

4.4 Harmonic function, Harmonic conjugate and orthogonal trajectories.

Self-learning Topics: Conformal map ping, linear, bilinear mapping, cross ratio, fixed

points and standard transformations. 07

5. Module: Linear Algebra: Matrix Theory

5.1 Characteristic equation, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, Example based on

properties of Eigen values and Eigen vectors.(Without Proof).

5.2 Cayley -Hamilton theorem (Without proof), Examples based on verification of

Cayley - Hamilton theorem and compute inverse of Matrix.

5.3 Similarity of matrices, Diagonalization of matrices, Functions of square matrix.

Self-learning Topics: Application of Matrix Theory in machine learning and google page

rank algorithms, derogatory and non -derogatory matrices . 06

6. Module: Vector Differentiation and Integra l

6.1 Vector differentiation : Basics of Gradient, Divergence and Curl (Without 06

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5

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Proof).

6.2 Properties of vector field: Solenoidal and Irrotational (conservative) vector

fields.

6.3 Vector integral: Line Integral, Green’s theorem in a plane (Without Proof),

Stokes’ theorem (Without Proof) only evaluation.

Self-learning Topics: Gauss’ divergence Theorem and applications of Vector calculus.

Term Work:

General Instructions:

1. Students must be encouraged to write at least 6 class tutorials on entire syllabus.

2. A group of 4 -6 students should be assigned a self -learning topic. Students should prepare a

presentation/problem solving of 10 -15 minutes. This should be considered as mini project in

Engineering mathematics. This project should be graded for 10 marks depe nding on the performance

of the students.

The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:

Class Tutorials on entire syllabus : 10 Marks

Mini project : 10 Marks

Attendance (Theory and Tutorial) : 5 Marks

Assessment :

Internal Assessment Test:

Assessment consists of two class tests of 20 marks each. The first -class test (Internal Assessment I) is

to be conducted when approximately 40% syllabus is completed and second class test (Internal

Assessment II) when additional 35% syllabus is completed. Duration of each test shall be one hour.

End Semester Theory Examination:

1. Question paper will comprise of tot al 06 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

2. Total 04 questions need to be solved.

3. Question No: 01 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein 4 sub -questions of 5 marks

each will be asked.

4. Remaining questions will be randomly selected from all the modules.

5. Weightage of each module will be proportional to number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in

the syllabus.

References: -

1. Advanced engineering mathematics, H.K. Das, S.Chand, Publications

2. Higher Engineering Mathematics, B. V. Ramana, Tata Mc -Graw Hill Publication

3. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, R. K. Jain and S. R. K. Iyengar, Narosa publication

4. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Wylie and Barret, Tata Mc -Graw Hill.

5. Theory and Problems of Fourier Analysis with applications to BVP, Murray Spiegel, Schaum’s

Outline Series

6. Vector Analysis Murry R. Spiegel, Schaum’s outline series, Mc -Graw Hill Publication

7. Beginning Linear Algebra, Seymour Lipschutz, Schaum’s outline series, Mc -Graw Hill Publication

8. Higher Engineering Mathematics, Dr. B. S. Grewal, Khanna Publication

## Page 8

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Course

Code Course Name Teaching scheme Credit assigned

BMC302 Human Anatomy

and Physiology for

Engineers

(Abbreviated as

HAPE) Theory Pract. Tut. Theory Pract. Tut. Total

03 -- -- 03 -- -- 03

Course

Code Course

Name Examination Scheme

Theory

Term

work Pract. Oral Pract.

/ Oral Total Internal Assessment End

sem Dura

tion

(hrs) Test 1 Test 2 Avg.

BMC302 Human

Anatomy

and

Physiology

for

Engineers

(Abbreviat

ed as

HAPE) 20 20 20 80 03 -- -- -- -- 100

Course Code Course Name Credits

BMC302 Human Anatomy and Physiology for Engineers 03

Course Objectives • To understand the anatomical structures of the human body and their

relationship to each other.

• To understand the different physiological processes taking place inside the

human body.

Course Outcomes Learners will be able to:

• Explain the organization of the human body, homeostasis and its maintenance,

structure and functions of a cell and basic tissues.

• Explain the components of blood and their functions.

• Explain the anatomical parts and physiological processes of the cardio vascular

system and respiratory system.

• Explain the anatomical parts and physiological processes of the alimentary

system and renal system.

• Explain the structure and functions of nervous system, eye and skin along with

the secretions and functions of all endocrine glands.

## Page 9

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Module Contents Hours

1. Introduction to the Human Body: Levels of structural organization; Characteristics of

living human organism; Homeostasis and its maintenance.

Cells and Tissues : Structure and functions of a cell; Transport across the plasma membrane 04

2. Cardiovascular System : Anatomy of the heart; Heart valves, systemic and pulmonary

circulation; Conduction system of the heart; Cardiac action potential, electrocardiogram

(ECG); Cardiac cycle; Cardiac output; Blood pressure. 05

3. Blood: Blood cells and their functions and ABO Blood Grouping 02

4. Renal System: Anatomy of the renal system; Functions of kidney (urine formation, electrolyte

balance and pH balance); composition of urine; Micturition. 05

5. Nervous System: Structure and functions of the brain and spinal cord.. 03

6. Endocrine System: All Glands of the endocrine system, their secretions and functions. 03

Assessment:

Internal Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on minimum 02

Modules) and the other is either a class test or assignment on live problems or course project.

Books Recommended:

Text books:

1. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness: Ross and Wilson. (ELBS Publication)

2. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology: Elaine N Marieb. (Pearson Education)

Reference Books:

1. Physiology of Human Body: Guyton. (Prism Book)

2. Review of Medical Physiology: William Ganong. (Prentice Hall Int.)

3. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology: Tortora and Grabowski. (Harper collin Pub.)

4. Anatomy and Physiology: Elaine N Marieb. (Pearson Education)

NPTEL /Swayam Course:

Course : Animal Physiology by Prof. Mainak Das - IIT Kanpur

https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102/104/102104058/

https://swayam.gov.in/nd1_noc20_bt42/preview

Theory Examination:

1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

2. Total four questions need to be solved.

3. Q.1 will be compulsory, based on entire syllabus wherein sub -questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked.

4. Remaining question will be randomly selected from all the modules.

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Course

Code Course Name Teaching scheme Credit assigned

BMC303 Medical Sensors

(Abbreviated as

MS) Theory Pract. Tut. Theory Pract. Tut. Total

03 -- -- 03 -- -- 03

Course Code Course Name Credits

BMC303 Medical Sensors 03

Course Objectives • To provide the knowledge of basic concepts such as generalized medical

instrumentation system, input transducer properties, and instrument characteristics.

• To provide a thorough understanding of principle and working of transducers and

sensors used for measuring displacement, motion, force, pressure, temperature, bio -

potentials, biochemical concentrations.

• To study the medical applications of the above transducers and sensors.

• To perform experiments based on some of the above transducers and sensors.

Course Outcomes The learner will be able to :

• Explain different components of a generalized medical instrumentation system,

input transducer properties, and instrument characteristics.

• Apply the knowledge of principles of various types of transducers and sensors

including motion, displacement, force, pressure sensors to different medical

applications.

• Apply the knowledge of principl es of various types of temperature sensors to

different medical applications.

• Apply the knowledge of the various biopotential electrodes for measuring different

types of biopotentials.

• Apply the principles of various chemical sensors for measuring concentration of

biochemical analytes.

• Explain the principles of various biosensors and their medical applications.

Course

Code Course

Name Examination Scheme

Theory

Term

work Pract. Oral Pract.

/ Oral Total Internal Assessment End

sem Dur-

ation

(hrs) Test

1 Test

2 Avg.

BMC303

Medical

Sensors

(Abbreviat

ed as MS) 20 20 20 80 03 -- -- -- -- 100

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Module Contents Hours

1. Introduction : Generalized medical instrumentation system; Static characteristics:

Accuracy, precision, resolution, reproducibility, sensitivity, drift, hysteresis,

linearity, input impedance and output impedance; Dynamic characteristics: Transfer

functions, first order and second order systems 03

2. Displacement, Motion and Force Sensors and the ir Medical Applications:

Displacement measurement: Strain gauges, bridge circuits, inductive sensor –

L.V.D.T., capacitive sensors; Acceleration and force measurement: Piezoelectric

sensor, load cell 05

3. Temperature Sensors and their Medical Applications : Temperature measurement:

Thermistor, thermocouple, resistive temperature detector; IC -based temperature

measurement; Radiation sensors: Quantum sensors 04

4. Biopotential electrodes : Half -cell potential, polarization, polarizable and non -

polarizable electrodes, calomel electrode; Electrode circuit model, electrode -skin

interface and motion artefacts; Body surface electrodes 03

5. Chemical Sensors and their Medical Applications : Blo od gas and acid - base

physiology; pH, Pco 2 , Po 2 electrodes; ISFETs; Transcutaneous arterial O 2 and CO 2

tension monitoring 04

6. Introduction : Generalized medical instrumentation system; Static characteristics:

Accuracy, precision, resolution, reproducibility, sensitivity, drift, hysteresis,

linearity, input impedance and output impedance; Dynamic characteristics: Transfer

functions, first order and second order systems 03

Books Recommended:

Text Books:

1. Medical Instrumentation -Application and Design, John G. Webster, Wiley India Private Limited.

2. Instrument Transducers: An Introduction to Their Performance and Design, Hermann K. P. Neubert,

Oxford University Press.

3. Biomedical Sensors: Fundamentals and Applications, Harry N. Norton, Noyes Publications.

4. Biomedical Transducers and Instruments, Tatsuo Togawa, Toshiyo Tamura and P. Ake Öberg, CRC

Press.

5. Electronics in Medicine and Biomedical Instrumentation by Nandini K. Jog, Prentice -Hall of India Pvt.

Limited.

6. Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications, Bansi Dhar Malhotra and Chandra Mouli Pandey, Smithers

Rapra Technology.

Reference Books:

1. Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation, L.A. Geddes and L.E. Baker, Wiley India Pvt Ltd.

2. Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, Leslie Cromwell, Erich A. Pfeiffer and Fred J. Wiebell,

Prentice -Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

3. Principles of Biomedica l Instrumentation and Measurement, Richard Aston, Merril Publishing

Company.

4. Measurement Systems, Application and Design, Ernest O. Doeblin, McGraw Hill Higher Education .

5. Handbook of Modern Sensors – Physics, Design and Application, Jacob Fraden, Springer Publishing

Company .

6. Transducers for Biomedical Measurements: Principles and Applications, Richard S. C. Cobbold, John

Wiley & Sons.

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 NPTEL /Swayam Course:

Course : Industrial Instrumentation by Prof. Alok Barua - IIT Kharagpur

https://nptel.ac.in/courses/108/105/108105064/

Assessment:

Internal Assessment consists of two tests out of which, one should be compulsory class test (on minimum 02

Modules) and the other is either a class test or assignment on live problems or course project.

Theory Examination:

1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

2. Total four questions need to be solved.

3. Q.1 will be compulsory, based on the entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be

asked.

4. Remaining question will be randomly selected from all the modules.

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Course

Code Course Name Teaching scheme Credit assigned

BMC304

Electronic circuit

analysis and

design

(Abbreviated as

ECAD) Theory Pract. Tut. Theory Pract. Tut. Total

04 -- -- 04 -- -- 04

Course

Code Course

Name Examination Scheme

Theory

Term

work Pract. Oral Pract.

/ Oral Total Internal Assessment End

sem Dura

tion

(hrs) Test 1 Test 2 Avg.

BMC304 Electronic

Circuit

Analysis

and Design

(ECAD) 20 20 20 80 03 -- -- -- -- 100

Course Code Course Name Credits

BMC304 Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design 04

Course Objectives • To understand transfer characteristics of semiconductor devices and to analyse

basic application circuits.

• To make learners aware about the mathematical models of BJT and its use in

analysing the circuits.

• To make the learners aware abou t different types of coupling and the concept of

multistage amplifiers.

• Learners will be able to design power amplifier.

• To learn types and applications of MOSFET.

Course Outcomes Learner will be able to:

• Explain the transfer characteristics in analysing the electronic circuits which use

diode, BJT etc.

• Explain equivalent circuits of BJT and apply them to analyse and design BJT

based amplifier circuits

• Apply the knowledge of mathematical model to analyse multistage amplifiers.

• Design and analyse power amplifiers.

• Apply the concept of transfer characteristics, D.C. load line, A.C. load line to

analyse MOSFET amplifiers.

## Page 14

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Module Contents Hours

1. Basics of Diodes : Construction, Working, Characteristics, Current Equation &

Equivalent circuits of P -N Junction Diode as well as Zener Diode, Applications of

Diode: Clipper & Clamper 04

2. Basics & DC analysis of BJT: Construction, Working and Characteristics of 3

different configurations of BJT.( Circuits, formulas and applications)

Quiescent point, DC load line, BJT Biasing need and types. Voltage Divider biasing

configuration (include stability factor), BJT as a swi tch. 05

3. BJT as an Amplifier : A.C. Equivalent Model: r e model( for analysis) h -parameter

model (Exact and Approximate) and Hybrid -π model(Only concept and relationship)

A.C. Analysis (Using re model): A.C. load line, A.C. Effects of R S & R L. Low frequency

and High frequency analysis of Single stage amplifiers 05

4. Multistage Amplifier:

Concept of cascading, Types of coupling, cascade configuration, cascode amplifier,

Darlington amplifie r 03

5. Power Amplifiers :

Classes of Power amplifiers, Class -A Power Amplifiers analysis (Direct coupled and

Transformer coupled), Class -B Power Amplifiers analysis Crossover distortion,

Class -AB Push Pull and Complementary Symmetry Power amplifier, Class -C Power

Amplifier, Heat Si nks 04

6. MOSFET:

Comparison of BJT & FET, Classification, Characteristics, Biasing of MOSFET,

MOSFET as an amplifier, MOSFET as a switch . 05

Assessment:

Internal Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on minimum 02

Modules) and the other is either a class test or assignment on live problems or course project.

Books Recommended:

Textbooks:

1. Electronics C ircuit . Anal ysis & Design, 2nd ed., Donald A. Neamen, McGraw Hill, 2001

2. Electr onics Devices & Circuits Theory, by by Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky, Pearson Education.

3. Semiconductor Data Manual, BPB Publications.

Reference Books:

1. Electronic Principles, by Albert Paul Malvin o 6th edition , McGraw Hill

2. Electronic Devices and Circuits, by Jacob Milliman McGraw Hill .

3. Electronic Design , by Martin Roden, Gordon L.Carpenter, William Wieseman, Fourth ed ition,

Shroff Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd. .

4. Electronic Circuits Discrete and Integrated, by Donald Schilling & Charles Belove, Third edition,

McGraw Hill.

NPTEL /Swayam Course:

Course : Analog Electronic Circuits by Prof. Pradip Mandal - IIT Kharagpur

https://nptel.ac.in/courses/108/105/108105158/

Theory Examination:

1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

2. Total four questions need to be solved.

3. Q.1 will be compulsory, based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked.

4. Remaining question will be randomly selected from all the modules.

## Page 15

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21

Course

Code Course Name Teaching scheme Credit assigned

BMC305

Digital

Electronics

(Abbreviated as

DE) Theory Pract. Tut. Theory Pract. Tut. Total

03 -- -- 03 -- -- 03

Course Code Course Name Credits

BMC305 Digital Electronics 03

Course Objectives • To make learner aware of basics of Digital circuits, logic design, various Logic

Families and Flip -flops.

• Learner should be able to design various counters, registers and know their

applications.

• Learner should be able to design sequential circuits as a state machine.

Course Outcomes Learner will be able to:

• Describe various number systems, logic gates and logic families.

• Apply Boolean algebra, K -maps for Logic reduction and implementations in SOP

and POS form

• Develop combinational circuits such as code converter circuits, parity generato r

checker circuits and magnitude comparator circuits. Also, circuits using

multiplexers, de -multiplexers, and decoders.

• Design synchronous sequential circuits and asynchronous counters using flip flops

• Design various registers using flip flops .

Course

Code Course

Name Examination Scheme

Theory

Term

work Pract Oral Pract.

/ Oral Total Internal Assessment End

sem Dura

tion

(hrs) Test 1 Test 2 Avg

BMC305

Digital

Electronics

(DE) 20 20 20 80 03 -- -- -- -- 100

## Page 16

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21

Module Contents Hours

1. Fundamentals of Digital Design:

Introduction: Number system: Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal and other. Conversion

from One system to another.

Logic Gates and Families: AND, OR, NOT, XOR, XNOR, operation NAND, NOR

used of the universal gate for performing different operations. 04

2. Combinational Logic Design:

Logic Reduction Techniques : K-MAPS and their use in specifying Boolean

Expressions, Minterm, Maxterm, SOP and POS Implementation. 03

3. MSI Combinational Circuits:

Binary Arithmetic Circuits : Laws of Boolean algebra , Binary Addition, Binary

Subtraction (ones and twos complement).

Elementary Designs: Parity Generator and Parity Checker (3 bit), (Half & Full)

Adders, (Half & Full) Subtractors, Magnitude Comparators. 04

4. Use of Multiplexers in Logic Design: Multiplexer, De- Multiplexers. 03

5. Fundamentals of Sequential Logic Circuits:

Flip-Flops: Flip-Flops, SR, T, D, JK. (Truth table and excitation table) 03

6. Counters: Modulus of a counter, Designing of synchronous and asynchronous counter

using flip flop.

Registers: Serial input serial output, serial input parallel output, Left Right shift

register, Bidirectional shift register, Universal shift register. 05

Assessment:

Internal Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on minimum 02

Modules) and the other is either a class test or assignment on live problems or course project.

Books Recommended:

Text Books:

1. Modern Digital Electronics, by R.P.Jain Tata McGraw Hill, 1984

2. Digital Design,by M Morris Mono Prentice Hall International -1984.

3. Digital Principal and Applications , by Malvino& Leach, Tata McGraw Hill, 1991.

4. Digital Electronics , by Malvino, Tata McGraw Hill, 1997.

5. Digital Logic: Applications and Design, by John Yarbourugh Cengage Learning

6. Fundamentals of Digital Circuits, by A. Anand Kumar, Prentice -Hall of India Pvt.Ltd;

7. Digital Design: Principles & Practices , by John F. Wakerly , Prentice Hall

Reference Books:

1. Digital Electronics, by James Bignell & Robert Donovan, Delmar, Thomas Learning,

2. Logic Circuits, by Jog N.K, 2nd edition, Nandu Publisher & Printer Pvt .Ltd. 1998.

3. Introduction to Logic Design , by Alan b. Marcovitz McGraw Hill Internation al 2002.

NPTEL /Swayam Course:

Course : 1. Digital Circuits by Prof. Santanu Chattopadhyay - IIT Kharagpur

https://nptel.ac.in/courses/108/105/108105113/

https://swayam.gov.in/nd1_noc20_ee70/preview

## Page 17

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Course : 2. Switching Circuits and Logic Design by Prof. Indranil Sengupta - IIT Kharagpur

https://nptel.ac.in/noc/courses/noc20/SEM2/noc20 -cs67/

https://swayam.gov.in/nd1_noc20_cs67/preview

Theory Examination :

1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

2. Total four questions need to be solved.

3. Q.1 will be compulsory, based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked.

4. Remaining question will be randomly selected from all the modules

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Course

Code Course Name Teaching Scheme Credit Assigned

BML301 Human Anatomy

and Physiology for

Engineers

(HAPE) Theory Pract. Tut. Theory Pract. Tut. Total

-- 02 -- -- 01 -- 01

Course

Code Course Name Examination Scheme

Theory Term

work Pract. Oral Pract.

/ Oral Total Internal Assessment End

sem Test 1 Test 2 Avg.

BML301 Human

Anatomy and

Physiology for

Engineers

(HAPE) -- -- -- -- 25 -- -- -- 25

Course Code Course Name Credits

BML301 Human Anatomy and Physiology for Engineers 01

Course Objective • To understand the anatomical structures of the human body and their relationship

to each other.

• To gain the knowledge of measurement of various physiological parameters of

the human body.

Course Outcome The learner will be able to :

• Demonstrate measurement of blood pressure using occlusive cuff method.

• Apply blood cell counting principles for measuring blood composition.

• Demonstrate the measurement of electrical activity of heart and the related

parameters.

• Demonstrate the measurement of various lung volumes and capacities.

• Appropriately utilize laboratory equipment, such as microscopes, general lab

ware, and virtual simulations.

• Locate and identify anatomical structures.

Syllabus: Same as that of BMC302, Human Anatomy and Physiology for Engineers.

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 List of Laboratory Experiments: (Any Seven)

1. To measure blood pressure using sphygmomanometer.

2. To find the total red blood cell count using pre -prepared slides.

3. To find the total white blood cell count using pre -prepared slides.

4. To study the conduction system of the heart.

5. To study the twelve lead electrode scheme and operation of the ECG Machine.

6. To record ECG and measure its various parameters (amplitude, intervals/segment).

7. To record lung volumes and capacities using a spirometer.

8. Visit to the anatomy department of a hospital to view specimens (cardiovascular & respiratory

systems).

9. Visit to the anatomy department of a hospital to view specimen (alimentary & renal systems).

10. Visit to the anatomy department of a hospital to view specimen (nervous system).

11. Present a case study on a given disease/abnormality that requires medical instruments for

diagnosis/treatment.

12. Present case a study on a given disease/abnormality that requires medical instruments for

diagnosis/treatment.

Any other experiment/visit to the hospital/case study based on sy llabus which will help learner to

understand a topic/concept.

Assessment:

Term Work:

Term work shall consist of minimum 7 experiments.

The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:

Laboratory work (Experiments) : 10 Marks

Laboratory work (Journal) : 10 Marks

Attendance : 05 Marks

The final certification and acceptance of term work e nsures the satisfactory performance of laboratory work

and minimum passing in the term work.

Books Recommended:

Text books:

1. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness: Ross and Wilson. (ELBS Pub.)

2. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology: Elaine N Marieb. (Pearson Education)

Reference Books:

1. Physiology of Human Body: Guyton. (Prism Book )

2. Review of Medical Physiology: William Ganong. (Prentice Hall Int.)

3. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology: Tortora and Grabowski. (Harper Collin Pub.)

4. Anatomy and Physiology: Elaine N Marieb. (Pearson Education)

NPTEL /Swayam Course:

Course : Animal Physiology by Prof. Mainak Das - IIT Kanpur

https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102/104/102104058/

https://swayam.gov.in/nd1_noc20_bt42/preview

## Page 20

18

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Course

Code Course Name Teaching Scheme Credits Assigned

BML302 Medical

Sensors

(Abbreviated

as MS) Theory Pract. Tut. Theory Pract. Tut. Total

--

02

--

--

01

--

01

Course

Code

Course Name Examination Scheme

Theory

Internal Assessment End

Sem Term

work Pract. Oral Pract.

/ Oral Total

Test

1 Test

2 Avg.

BML302 Medical

Sensors

(Abbreviated

as MS)

--

--

--

--

25

--

25

--

50

Course Code Course Name Credits

BML302 Medical Sensors 01

Course Objectives • To analyse the transient response of a first -order system.

• To measure displacement using various displacement sensors.

• To measure pressure using a pressure sensor.

• To measure force using a force sensor.

• To measure temperature using various temperature sensors.

• To measure pH of a solution using a pH electrode.

Course Outcomes The learner will be able to:

• Analyse step response of a first -order system.

• Demonstrate the measurement of displacement using various displacement

sensors.

• Demonstrate the measurement of force and pressure using a force sensor and a

pressure sensor respectively.

• Demonstrate the measurement of temperature using various temperature

sensors.

• Distinguish various biopotential electrodes.

• Demonstrate the measurement of pH of a solution using a pH electrode.

Syllabus: Same as that of BMC303 Medical Sensors.

## Page 21

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 List of Laboratory Experiments: (Any seven)

1. To study the transient response of a first -order system.

2. To study the resistance versus temperature characteristics of a thermistor.

3. To study the thermistor linearization technique.

4. To study the characteristics of a light dependent resister.

5. To study the principle and working of a thermocouple.

6. To study principle and working of L.V.D.T.

7. To study principle and working of a capacitive sensor.

8. To study principle and working of a strain gage sensor.

9. To study principle and working of a p ressure sensor.

10. To study the principle and working of a force sensor.

11. To study the various biopotential electrodes.

12. To study the pH electrode.

Any other experiment/student presentation based on the syllabus which will help the learner to understand

a topi c/concept.

Books Recommended:

Text Books:

1. Medical Instrumentation -Application and Design, John G. Webster, Wiley India Private Limited.

2. Instrument Transducers: An Introduction to Their Performance and Design, Hermann K. P. Neubert,

Oxford University Press.

3. Biomedical Sensors: Fundamentals and Applications, Harry N. Norton, Noyes Publications.

4. Biomedical Transducers and Instruments, Tatsuo Togawa, Toshiyo Tamura and P. Ake Öberg, CRC

Press.

5. Electronics in Medic ine and Biomedical Instrumentation by Nandini K. Jog, Prentice -Hall of India Pvt.

Limited.

6. Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications, Bansi Dhar Malhotra and Chandra Mouli Pandey, Smithers

Rapra Technology.

Reference Books:

1. Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation, L.A. Geddes and L.E. Baker, Wiley India Pvt Ltd.

2. Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, Leslie Cromwell, Erich A. Pfeiffer and Fred J. Wiebell,

Prentice -Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

3. Principles of Biomedica l Instrumentation and Measurement, Richard Aston, Merril Publishing

Company.

4. Measurement Systems, Application and Design, Ernest O. Doeblin, McGraw Hill Higher Education .

5. Handbook of Modern Sensors – Physics, Design and Application, Jacob Fraden, Springer Publishing

Company .

6. Transducers for Biomedical Measurements: Principles and Applications, Richard S. C. Cobbold, John

Wiley & Sons.

NPTEL /Swayam Course:

Course : Industrial Instrumentation by Prof. Alok Barua - IIT Kharagpur

https://nptel.ac.in/courses/108/105/108105064/

## Page 22

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21

Assessment :

Term Work:

Term work shall consist of minimum 7 experiments.

The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:

Laboratory work (Experiments) : 10 Marks

Laboratory work (Journal) : 10 Marks

Attendance : 5 Marks

The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of laboratory work

and minimum passing in the term work.

Oral examination will be based on suggested practical list and entire syllabus.

## Page 23

21

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Course

Code Course Name Teaching scheme Credit assigned

BML303 Electronic Circuit

Analysis and

Design Lab

(ECAD Lab) Theory Pract. Tut. Theory Pract. Tut. Total

-- 02 -- -- 01 -- 01

Course

Code Course Name Examination Scheme

Theory Term

work Pract. Oral Pract.

/ Oral Total Internal Assessment End

sem Test 1 Test 2 Avg.

BML303 Electronic

Circuit Analysis

and Design Lab

(ECAD Lab) -- -- -- -- 25 -- -- 25 50

Course Code Course Name Credits

BML303 Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design Lab 01

Course Objective • To practically verify characteristics of different electronic components like

diodes, BJT, MOSFET etc

• To practically verify outputs of few applications of diodes, BJT, MOSFET.

• To design and implement small signal amplifier.

Course Outcome Learner will be able to:

• Explain the transfer characteristics of basic semiconductor devices.

• Design and verify the outputs of various electronic circuits such as clipper,

clampers etc using bread boards and various lab equipments.

• Design amplifier circuits and plot its frequency response.

Syllabus: Same as that of BMC304 Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design.

List of Laboratory Experiments: (Any Eight)

1. To verify semiconductor diode and Zener diode characteristics.

2. To implement various clipper circuits and verify output.

3. To implement various clamper circuits and verify output.

4. To study line regulation and load regulation of voltage regulator using Zener diode.

5. To verify input and output characteristics of BJT.

6. To implement a switch using BJT.

7. To implementation different biasing circuit of BJT

8. To design and implement CE a mplifier.

9. To study frequency response of CE amplifier.

10. To verify input and output characteristics of MOSFET.

11. To implementation different biasing circuit of MOSFET

12. To Study frequency response of an MOSFET amplifier.

Any other experiment based on syllabus c an be included in the term work which will help learner to

understand topic/concept.

## Page 24

22

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Assessment:

Term Work:

Term work shall consist of minimum 8 experiments.

The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:

Laboratory work (Experiments) : 10 Marks

Laboratory work (Journal) : 10 Marks

Attendance : 5 Marks

The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of laboratory work

and minimum passing in the term work.

Books Recommended:

Textbooks:

1. Electronics C ircuit . Anal ysis & Design, 2nd ed., Donald A. Neamen, McGraw Hill, 2001

2. Electr onics Devices & Circuits Theory, by by Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky, Pearson Education.

3. Semiconductor Data Manual, BPB Publications.

Reference Books:

1. Electronic Principles, by Albert Paul Malvin o 6th edition , McGraw Hill

2. Electronic Devices and Circuits, by Jacob Milliman McGraw Hill .

3. Electronic Design , by Martin Roden, Gordon L.Carpenter, William Wieseman , Fourth ed ition,

Shroff Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd. .

4. Electronic Circuits Discrete and Integrated, by Donald Schilling & Charles Belove, Third edition,

McGraw Hill.

NPTEL /Swayam Course:

Course : Analog Electronic Circuits by Prof. Pradip Mandal - IIT Kharagpur

https://nptel.ac.in/courses/108/105/108105158/

Practical exam consists of performance of any one practical from the conducted experiments within

the semester and oral based on entire syllabus.

## Page 25

23

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Course

Code Course Name Teaching scheme Credit assigned

BML304 Electronics Lab

(Skill Based Lab) Theory Pract. Tut. Theory Pract. Tut. Total

-- 04 -- -- 02 -- 02

Course

Code Course Name Examination Scheme

Theory Term

work Pract. Oral Pract.

/ Oral Total Internal Assessment End

sem Test 1 Test 2 Avg.

BML304 Electronics Lab

(Skill Based Lab) -- -- -- -- 25 -- -- 25 50

Course Code Course Name Credits

BML304 Electronics Lab (Skill Based Lab) 02

Course Objective • To design and implement voltage regulator circuits.

• To design and implement digital circuits.

• To learn skills of soldering.

• To learn simulation of circuits using one of the simulation software.

Course Outcome Learner will be able to:

• Design and implement analog and digital electronic circuits on bread board and

verify the outputs.

• Learn one of the tools for simulating different circuits.

• Know the limitations of ideal environment of simulations and also importance of

simulation in desig ning the circuits.

• Learn soldering skills for implementing the circuits on PCB.

List of experiments from Analog electronics:

Skill 1 -Soldering the components on PCB (Any 4)

1. Implement diode as full -wave rectifier using centre tap transformer.

2. Implement diode as full -wave rectifier using bridge circuit.

3. Use of Filter components with rectifier circuit.

4. Implement voltage regulators using IC 79XXand/or IC 78XX

5. Implement voltage regulators using IC 317/IC 723

6. Implement of logic gates us ing diodes.

Skill 2 -Simulations using simulation software like Multisim, Pspice etc (Any 4)

1. Simulate CASCODE amplifier.

2. Simulate Darlington amplifier.

3. Simulate power Amplifier

4. Simulate DIAC for transfer characteristics.

5. Simulate TRIAC for transfer characteristics.

6. Simulate UJT for transfer characteristics.

List of experiments from Digital Electronics (Perform using Breadboard or Logisim S/W etc):

(Any 8)

1. A step in space vehicle checkout depends on FOUR sensors S1, S2, S3 and S4. Every circuit is w orking

properly if sensor S1 and at least two of the other three sensors are at logic 1. Implement the system using

NAND gates only, the output is connected to a red LED which must glow if the circuit is not working properly

and the output is connected to a green LED which must glow if the circuit is working properly.

2. To design binary to gray code converter and gray to binary converter.

## Page 26

24

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 3. To design parity generator and parity checker circuits.

4. To design adder and subtractor circuits.

5. To design various circu its using multiplexers.

6. To design various circuits using de -multiplexer.

7. To design Asynchronous counter.

8. To design decade counter

9. To design Synchronous counter.

10. To implement shift register and ring counter using MSI shift register.

11. To implement Moore/ Meal y machine.

12. A given finite state machine has an input W and output Z. During four consecutive clock pulses a sequence

of four values of W signal is applied. Design a machine that produces Z = 1 when it detects either of sequence

W: 0010 or W: 1110 otherwis e Z=0. After the fourth clock pulse the machine has to be again in the reset

state ready for next sequence.

Any other experiment based on syllabus can be included in the term work which will help learner to understand

topic/concept.

Assessment:

Term Work:

Term work shall consist of minimum 8 experiments from Analog electronics and 8 experiments from digital

electronics.

The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:

Laboratory work (Lab work and journal):10 Marks

Soldering skills :05 Marks

Simulation skills :05 marks

Attendance :05 Marks

The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of laboratory work

and minimum passing in the term work.

Books Recommended:

Text Books:

1. Op-Amps and linear integrated circuits – Ramakant Gayakwad , Prentice Hall

2. Electronics Devices & Circuits, by Boylestad Robert L., Louis Nashelsky, Pearson Education.

3. Modern Digital Electronics, by R.P.Jain, Tata McGraw Hill, 1984

4. Digital Design, M Morris Mono, Prentice Hall International -1984.

Reference Books:

1. Electronic Principles, by Albert Paul Malvino, 6/e, McGraw Hill

2. Semiconductor Data Manual, BPB Publications.

3. Electronic design, by Martin Roden, Gordon L. C arpenter, William Wieseman Fourth ed ition,

Shroff Publishers &Distributors Pvt. Ltd.

4. Digital Design, by M Morris Mono Prentice Hall International 1984

Practical exam consists of performance of any one practical from digital electronics experiments

conducted within the semester and oral based on digital electronics syllabus.

## Page 27

25

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 Course code Course Name Credits

BMM301 Mini Project - 1 A 02

Course Code Course Name Credits

BMM301 Mini Project – 1 A 02

Course Objective • To acquaint with the process of identifying the needs and converting it into the

problem .

• To familiarize the process of solving the problem in a group .

• To acquaint with the process of applying basic engineering fundamental s to

attempt solutions to the problems.

• To inculcate the process of self -learning and research.

Course Outcome Learner will be able to:

• Identify problems based on societal /research needs.

• Apply Knowledge and skill to solve societal problems in a group.

• Develop interpersonal skills to work as member of a group or leader.

• Draw the proper inferences from available results through theoretical /

experimental/simulations .

• Analyse the impact of solutions in societal and environmental context for

sustainable de velopment.

• Use standard norms of engineering practices

• Excel in written and oral communication.

• Demonstrate capabilities of self -learning in a group, which leads to life long

learning.

• Demonstrate project management principles during project work.

Guidelines for Mini Project

• Students shall form a group of 3 to 4 students, while forming a group shall not be allowed less than

three or more than four students, as it is a group activity.

• Students should do survey and identify needs, which shall be conv erted into problem statement for

mini project in consultation with faculty supervisor/head of department/internal committee of

faculties.

• Students hall submit implementation plan in the form of Gantt/PERT/CPM chart, which will cover

weekly activity of mini project.

• A log book to be prepared by each group, wherein group can record weekly work progress,

guide/supervisor can verify and record notes/comments.

• Faculty supervisor may give inputs to students during mini project activity; however, focus shall be

on self -learning.

• Students in a group shall understand problem effectively, propose multiple solution and select best

possible solution in consultation with guide/ supervisor.

• Students sh all convert the best solution into working model using various c omponents of their

domain areas and demonstrate.

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26

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 • The solution to be validated with proper justification and report to be compiled in standard format

of University of Mumbai .

• With the focus on the self -learning, innovation, addressing societal problems an d entrepreneurship

quality development within the students through the Mini Projects, it is preferable that a single

project of appropriate level and quality to be carried out in two semesters by all the groups of the

students. i.e. Mini Project 1 in semes ter III and IV. Similarly, Mini Project 2 in semesters V and VI.

• However, based on the individual students or group capability, with the mentor’s recommendations,

if the proposed Mini Project adhering to the qualitative aspects mentioned above gets comple ted in

odd semester, then that group can be allowed to work on the extension of the Mini Project with

suitable improvements/modifications or a completely new project idea in even semester. This policy

can be adopted on case by case basis.

Guidelines for As sessment of Mini Project :

Term Work

• The review/ progress monitoring committee shall be constituted by head of departments of

each institute. The progress of mini project to be evaluated on continuous basis, minimum two

reviews in each semester.

• In continuous assessment focus shall also be on each individual student, assessment based on

individual’s contribution in group activity, their understanding and response to questions.

• Distribution of Term work marks for both semesters shall be as below;

o Mark s awarded by guide/supervisor based on log book : 10

o Marks awarded by review committee : 10

o Quality of Project report : 05

Review/progress monitoring committee may consider following points for

assessment based on either one year or half year pro ject as mentioned in general

guidelines.

One-year project:

• In first semester entire theoretical solution shall be ready, including components/system

selection and cost analysis. Two reviews will be conducted based on presentation given by

students group.

▪ First shall be for finalisation of problem

▪ Second shall be on finalisation of proposed solution of problem.

• In second semester expected work shall be procurement of component’s/systems, building of

working prototype, testing and validation of results bas ed on work completed in an earlier

semester.

▪ First review is based on readiness of building working prototype to be conducted.

▪ Second review shall be based on poster presentation cum demonstration of working

model in last month of the said semester.

Half -year project:

• In this case in one semester students’ group shall complete project in all aspects including,

o Identification of need/problem

o Proposed final solution

o Procurement of components/systems

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University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2020 -21 o Building prototype and testing

• Two reviews will be con ducted for continuous assessment,

▪ First shall be for finalisation of problem and proposed solution

▪ Second shall be for implementation and testing of solution.

Assessment criteria of Mini Project.

Mini Project shall be assessed based on following criteria;

1. Quality of survey/ need identification

2. Clarity of Problem definition based on need.

3. Innovativeness in solutions

4. Feasibility of proposed problem solutions and selection of best solution

5. Cost effectiveness

6. Societal impact

7. Innovativeness

8. Cost effectiveness and Societal impact

9. Full functioning of working model as per stated requirements

10. Effective use of skill sets

11. Effective use of standard engineering norms

12. Contribution of an individual’s as member or leader

13. Clarity in written and oral communication

• In one year, project , first semester evaluation may be based on first six criteria’s and remaining

may be used for second semester evaluation of performance of students in mini project .

• In cas e of half year project all criteria’s in generic may be considered for evaluation of performance

of students in mini project.

Guidelines for Assessment of Mini Project Practical/Oral Examination:

• Report should be prepared as per the guidelines issued by the University of Mumbai.

• Mini Project sh all be assessed through a presentation and demonstration of working model by the

student project group to a panel of Internal and External Examiners prefera bly from industry or

research organizations having experience of more than five years approved by head of Institution.

• Students shall be motivated to publish a paper based on the work in Conferences/students

competitions.

Mini Project shall be assessed based on following points;

1. Quality of problem and Clarity

2. Innovativeness in solutions

3. Cost effectiveness and Societal impact

4. Full functioning of working model as per stated requirements

5. Effective use of skill sets

6. Effective use of standard engine ering norms

7. Contribution of an individual’s as member or leader

8. Clarity in written and oral communicate